My views on Cosmology and Physics
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Books by David Michalets
Distant Spectral Shifts is a book presented in a series of web pages. This set is based n of my book, Cosmology Crisis Cleared, which was published on November 27, 2021.
The format of the content twas changed from a 6x9" page in a book to accommodate the display of a narrow smart phone.
Anyone having Internet access can read this book, by starting with its link.
The 2 main changes from the book are a new replacement for the section on quasars, and a new section having an index for the spectra distributed among the sections.
The book Cosmology Crisis Cleared identifies the fundamental mistake causing the failure of cosmologists to agree on a value for Hubble's Constant, which is the most important constant in the big bang cosmology. After over 90 years of trying, this is a crisis.
Its important conclusion is the velocity of a galaxy or quasar is being measured wrong.
This web page version of the book has a new title, because it should reflect the emphasis of the content. Hubble's constant still has a section, but that topic is not emphasized.
The reader is given spectra from a set of galaxies and quasars, to discover how a velocity and distance is obtained by astronomers, from the raw data.
For every galaxy and quasar:
Its redshift or blueshift comes from measuring atoms in the line of sight.
There is no galaxy or quasar with a correctly measured velocity, which ishould be independent of an observer.
Currently, astronomers rely on the Doppler effect for a line of sight velocity relative to the observer, who is on or near the Earth, because that is the range of our observatories. Until we place an observation platform far beyond our Milky Way, we must accept the limited use of the Doppler effect within only the line of sight.
We must overcome the mistake of the big bang cosmology which assumes a Doppler effect can provide an accurate 3-dimensional velocity of an object.
This publication , Distant Spectral Shifts, reveals the 2-dimensional Doppler effect is always applied wrong, for every galaxy and quasar
The web pages have links to images of spectrograms, to reveal how the spectral shifts are being measured for each galaxy and quasar in the subset of many, presented in this analysis.
The reader can discover how spectral line shifts are measured to obtain an object's velocity relative to Earth.
After reviewing the consistent, wrong selections for redshifts, The reader can also decide, from the raw data, whether they agree with my conclusion that all measured velocities, when using a spectral line shift from an atom in the line of sight, for galaxies and quasars, are wrong.
When all velocities are wrong, the basis for the big bang cosmology has been removed.
Therefore, the big bang cosmology must be replaced, along with its accessories like its cosmological model based on invisible dark matter, which is the excuse whenever a magnetic field is being ignored. Cosmology fails to recognize the force of electromagnetism, despite Hannes Alfven getting the 1970 Nobel Prize in Physics, over 50 years ago.
My goal in this post is justifying the banning of redshift and blueshift from cosmology when referring to a galaxy or quasar. Currently, those spectral shifts are measured in atoms in the line of sight. We never measure motion of the distant large object.
This web page revision: January 14, 2022
An image has a name and link, so you decide when to load the image, and your platform defines the presentation of the selected image.
The Table of Contents enables navigating among the sections. Click on the link to get that section.
Each section ends with a link to this TOC.
Table of Contents
Introduction (is below, on this page)
1 Defining the Crisis
2 Data Sets
4 Doppler Effect
6 Star vs Galaxy
8 Galaxies with Cepheids
10 Cosmic Distance Ladder
11 NED Redshifts
12 NED Distances
13 Hubble's Law
14 Hubble's Constant
16 Big Bang
17 Final Conclusion
18 Index of Spectra
Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book, Cosmology Crisis Cleared.
I kept the 17 sections and replacerd the 18th with new name and content.
The book Cosmology Crisis Cleared identifies the fundamental mistake causing the failure of cosmologists to agree on a value for Hubble's Constant, which is the most important constant in cosmology. After 80 years of trying, this is a crisis.
The crisis revolves around the uncertainty of Hubble's Constant. The University of Chicago in "The Hubble constant, explained" has a clear statement of this constant's importance in this crisis:
The Hubble constant is one of the most important numbers in cosmology because it tells us how fast the universe is expanding, which can be used to determine the age of the universe and its history. It gets its name from UChicago alum Edwin Hubble, who was first to calculate the constant from his measurements of stars in 1929.
Despite nearly a hundred years of astronomical measurements and calculations, scientists still can't agree on the exact value of the Hubble constant. The true number could reveal missing pieces in our understanding of physics, like new particles or a new form of dark energy. [ Reference:
Excerpt from a 2021 news story, titled "Why is there a 'crisis' in cosmology?"
Since 2014, there have been over 300 proposals for solutions to this "crisis in cosmology." None of these proposals is universally agreed upon by cosmologists, and as measurements continue, the crisis just keeps getting worse. [Ref4]
This book explains those incorrect measurements.
The essential problem for astronomers is finding an acceptable velocity for an acceptable distance to calculate an acceptable value of Hubble's Constant.
This book describes the methods of measuring a velocity and disytance for galaxies and quasars.
After reviewing the data compiled for this book, I conclude that every galaxy and quasar has its motion measured incorrectly. The mistake in this measurement is driven by one wrong assumption: that the velocity of a galaxy or quasar can measured from a spectrum by the same technique as used for a star in the Milky Way.
The method of measuring a velocity by only a simple change in a spectrum CANNOT apply to a star as well as a galaxy or quasar.
Only a star of the 3 has a photosphere surface for attached atoms.
Spectrograms are provided for the reader
I can explain why the method being used since the first measurement of a galaxy velocity is wrong. Unfortunately, its use persists to this day. The first measurement of a galaxy velocity was by the astronomer Vesto Slipher in 1912; it was a redshift.
The first galaxy blue shift velocity was measured by Slipher in 1914.
Cosmologists have accepted both the measurements and their method, but because the values are wrong by the wrong technique, these velocities can force awkward explanations.
Astronomers are apparently unwilling to question the validity of their measurements though sometimes the values are near impossible. For example, in recent decades velocities much greater than the speed of light are measured and accepted.
The redshift is a proportional change in a wavelength. This ratio is assigned to the value of z ratio. The value of z can be converted into a velocity by multiplying z times c, or the velocity of light. the value of z = 1 means the velocity of the object driving the change in the spectrum by the Doppler effect was moving at the speed of light.
There are many galaxies and quasars with measured velocities of z> 1. The galaxy having the highest measured redshift is GN-Z11 with z=11.
In my opinion, one's first response to any value of z>1 should be:
"This superluminal velocity is impossible for a massive galaxy, so its measurement must be a mistake."
That the superluminal velocity is impossible should not be debated.
Many galaxies have billions of stars.
Our Milky Way has over 200 billion stars, and M31 has 1 trillion stars.
A force was required to accelerate the individual stars into motion; then, the force must be maintained to reach a particular velocity, based on the force and mass. Power is a total of the force applied over a time duration.
The power required for a single galaxy to attain a superluminal velocity needs no calculation when the result is worthless in a rational discussion.
Unfortunately, cosmologists accepted these ridiculous velocity values and proposed explanations for them. These border on ridiculous also.
They proposed: a) a fabric of space expanding at a velocity greater than the velocity of light,
b) dark energy (the word dark is for either unmeasurable or imaginary) for the individual galaxy trajectories, and
c) a big bang explosion, which is just a creation story.
If the mistake is not fixed, then part of the foundation of cosmology is invalid meaning all that rests on it will fail.
This book analyzes the public data of over 600 galaxies.
Each galaxy has measurements to obtain its position and magnitude. When possible, its light is measured as a spectrum. The spectrum represents the energy distribution of the light among its continuum of wavelengths. For many years, the change in a spectrum was measured using spectroscopy. The change in wavelength distribution was assumed to be caused by the Doppler Effect. In recent decades, sky surveys have captured images of many galaxies, so their individual magnitudes can be measured.
When the spectrum is used to measure a change. this change is sometimes called a redshift, which can be used to calculate a velocity and distance, based on certain assumptions.
This quantity of images resulted in using other methods of data analysis to obtain a distance based on luminosity where light dims by distance. These methods do not rely only on specific wavelengths in a spectrum to derive a galaxy's velocity and to then derive its distance. Each method has important assumptions for its calculation. All the non-Doppler methods which calculate a distance also assume a galaxy's velocity can be calculated from its distance based on Hubble's Law.
In 1923, Hubble confirmed the first galaxy being outside our Milky Way. Before that event, distant spiral nebulae could be either inside or beyond our Milky Way.
Measurements of galaxies have been continuing for about 100 years, with many including its spectrum. These measurements lead to estimated velocities and distances. Several assumptions affect the conclusions being drawn from the raw data. Those assumptions are crucial and must be reconsidered after a review of the historical data and the nuances of the Doppler Effect.
There are more galaxies in the universe, but the others would not affect the conclusions based on this diverse set of those close enough for a spectrum analysis.
Among the goals after analyzing the data of these galaxies:
a) Define the correct procedure for measuring a velocity of galaxy or quasar,
b) Describe the origin and future of Hubble-Lemaitre Law and its Hubble's Constant;
c) Evaluate the alternate methods used for getting a redshift not from the spectrum, like based on luminosity changes.
d) Evaluate the various methods for calculating an object's distance from changes in luminosity, like using Cepheids.
After revealing the cause of the crisis with Hubble's constant, its new role in cosmology is described.
With this crisis in cosmology resolved, a clearer picture of the universe is revealed, regarding valid motions and distances of galaxies and quasars.
The big bang theory arose from galaxy measurements beginning over 100 years ago. This theory must be revised after correct velocity measurements.
My research created an archive of data for each galaxy, to enable charts of certain values, and to support the conclusions.
This is a summary of the 18 sections:
1) Defining the Crisis describes the crisis in general terms and references conferences for cosmologist to discuss a resolution.
2) Data Sets describes my compilation of galaxy data. The 2 main references are Wikipedia and NASA Extragalactic Database, or NED. The data cover more than 600 galaxies, with their constellation, celestial coordinates, magnitude, red shift velocity, distance, and diameter (when available), in either light-years or minutes of arc. Over 20 Abell galaxy clusters are included for reference. Please note some screen captures of NED's transient display pages are provided to show its content when helpful. There is no permanent page in NED for a link, for a later reference. Those images were reduced in size for this page size. To see the original NED data, one must use the NED web site.
3) Light describes several forms of electromagnetic radiation, or light, including synchrotron and thermal.
4) Doppler Effect describes one of the fundamental interpretations of a change measured in a spectrum. One must be sure of where in the light's path did the change occur. Sometimes, a mistake is made. A star must use a method unlike a galaxy or quasar.
5) Star Vs Galaxy describes the differences between them, which require different methods to obtain their velocity
6) Stars describes a star's light generation mechanism and a few relevant types of stars including variable stars having a consistent pattern between brighter and dimmer.
7) Galaxies offers basic descriptions of galaxies and their types.
8) Galaxies with Cepheids details the combination of velocity and distance for each galaxy having 1 or more Cepheids.
9) Quasars describes another distant celestial object which is neither a star nor galaxy. Quasars are far fewer in number than galaxies. They must be included because they are part of the perceived expansion.
10) Cosmic Distance Ladder describes the priority assigned to the respective distance calculation methods.
11) NED Redshifts describes the different redshift behaviors being measured for galaxies to measure its velocity. Any velocity is often assumed to be related to its distance by Hubble's Law. That assumption must be questioned with new velocities.
12) NED Distances describes the respective methods for calculating a distance.
13) Hubble's Law or the Hubble-Lemaitre Law describes the formula relating a distant object's velocity to its distance.
14) Hubble's Constant is claimed to represent the rate of expansion; a few years ago, cosmologists declared a crisis when they could not agree on its value and with their desired precision.
15) Charts presents charts of the basic data, like magnitude, velocity, and distance, or which galaxies are using the different redshift methods. These charts illustrate the justification for some conclusions
16) Big Bang describes this theory which includes universe expansion. This theory is affected by the changes in Hubble's Constant and universe expansion. A cosmological model arose to explain the big bang process from an explosion through the evolution of the debris.
17) Final Conclusion summarizes the book's conclusions.
18) Index of Spectra enables finding the section having the spectra of a particular object. There are 21 galaxies and 7 quasars in the list.
Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.
last change 01/14/2022