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Book by David Michalets

Distant Spectral Shifts

16 Big Bang

This is section 16 of 18.

The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.

The big bang theory arose after many galaxies were measured having a red shift. The theory's history and future are discussed.
16.1 Origin
The philosophy of Aristotle held that the universe had an infinite past, which caused problems for medieval Jewish and Islamic philosophers who were unable to reconcile the Aristotelian conception of the eternal with the Abrahamic view of creation.
Observationally, in the 1910s, Vesto Slipher and later, Carl Wilhelm Wirtz, determined that most spiral nebulae (now correctly called spiral galaxies) were receding from Earth.

In 1927, the Belgian Catholic priest Georges Lemaitre proposed an expanding model for the universe to explain the observed redshifts of spiral nebulae, and calculated the Hubble law. He based his theory on the work of Einstein and De Sitter, and independently derived Friedmann's equations for an expanding universe. Also, the red shifts themselves were not constant, but varied in such manner as to lead to the conclusion that there was a definite relationship between amount of red-shift of nebulae, and their distance from observers.

In 1931, Lema├«tre proposed in his "hypoth├Ęse de l'atome primitif" (hypothesis of the primeval atom) that the universe began with the "explosion" of the "primeval atom" — what was later called the Big Bang. [R267]


Aristotle accepted a universe having no beginning.
Jewish and Islamic philosophers required a beginning.

The redshifts from consistently measuring a velocity wrong resulted in what Aristotle considered unnecessary.

16.2 CMB

The cosmic microwave background (CMB, CMBR), in Big Bang cosmology, is electromagnetic radiation which is a remnant from an early stage of the universe, also known as "relic radiation". [Reference: ]

Dr. Pierre-Marie Robitaille has published papers and produced YouTube videos thoroughly describing why the CMB was never detected and how this mistake resulted in misleading claims of its evidence. [Reference:

The Big Bang & Microwave Background - The Early Years ]

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;ast update: 01/14/2022