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Book by David Michalets

Distant Spectral Shifts

1 Defining the crisis

This is section 1 of 18.

The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.

This book's introduction included a statement from the University of Chicago about the uncertainty of Hubble's Constant.
It is repeated here, followed by an observation.

The Hubble constant is one of the most important numbers in cosmology because it tells us how fast the universe is expanding, which can be used to determine the age of the universe and its history. It gets its name from UChicago alum Edwin Hubble, who was first to calculate the constant from his measurements of stars in 1929.
Despite nearly a hundred years of astronomical measurements and calculations, scientists still can't agree on the exact value of the Hubble constant. The true number could reveal missing pieces in our understanding of physics, like new particles or a new form of dark energy.  [Reference:  ]


The University of Chicago is wrong with their claim Hubble was first to do the calculation.
Georges Lemaître published his formula in 1926 based on the galaxy data at the time.
In 2018, his contribution to Hubble's Law was recognized by the AUI changing its name to Hubble–Lemaître law.  [Reference:  ]

From a 2019 story titled "A Crisis in Cosmology – Measurements of Hubble Constant Disagree"

"Therein lies the crisis in cosmology," says Fassnacht. "While the Hubble Constant is constant everywhere in space at a given time, it is not constant in time. So, when we are comparing the Hubble Constants that come out of various techniques, we are comparing the early universe (using distant observations) vs. the late, more modern part of the universe (using local, nearby observations)." [Reference:
A Crisis in Cosmology â€" Measurements of Hubble Constant Disagree (


Excerpt from a 2021 news story "Why is there a 'crisis' in cosmology?"

Since 2014, there have been over 300 proposals for solutions to this "crisis in cosmology." None of these proposals is universally agreed upon by cosmologists, and as measurements continue, the crisis just keeps getting worse. [Reference: ]

The calculation of Hubble's constant requires 2 factors:

1) velocity, and

2) a distance.

The introduction already noted the velocity of a galaxy or quasar is measured wrong.
Therefore, these studies and proposals are using wrong values for the first factor.

This is explained in Section Star vs Galaxy.

Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.

;ast update: 01/05/2022