Part 1 explained behaviors for hydrogen red shifts in the IGM.
Part 2 must explain the other red shifts which come from Calcium.
All blue shift galaxies are explained in this part because that blue shift comes from a calcium atom.
The calcium observations begin with the Local Group.
This is a conjecture which is worthwhile to consider, until either, a) more galaxy spectra are revealed to change this one, or b) another proposal is offered. Cosmology offers nothing right now for the IGM.
Part 1 used excerpts of spectra descriptions for the hydrogen absorption line. Part 2 requires spectra for proper analysis to distinguish hydrogen from calcium.
Despite the lack of public galaxy spectra, the few which were found provide enough clues for a conjecture on calcium behaviors observed in the IGM.
My February 8, 2020 post titled
Galaxy Redshift Data Revelation
identified 6 figures with galaxy spectra.
These 6 are for: M31, from NASA, and 5 unnamed galaxies (only their constellations), from a University of Oregon lecture posted online about redshifts. (UofO is University of Oregon in this post.)
The reasons why these 6 can be a suitable basis for this conjecture:
a) all have calcium absorption lines,
b) M31 has them blue shifted.
c) the 5 from UofO have them red shifted,
d) none have z > 1.
Therefore this small sample represents a set of galaxies which are not far into the IGM where galaxy redshifts can exceed the speed of light or z > 1. Those galaxies were covered in Part 1. Both red and blue shifts are in this sample of 6.
Therefore for an initial conjecture for the IGM, both the low red shift and any blue shift scenarios are in this sample.
The Local Group was identified as unique by Hubble in 1936.
The 1999 paper in arxiv.org is titled: THE LOCAL GROUP OF GALAXIES
from that paper:
Hubble’s (1936, p. 125) view that the Local Group (LG) is "a typical, small group of nebulae which is isolated in the general field" is confirmed by modern data.
The zero-velocity surface, which separates the Local Group from the field that is expanding with the Hubble flow, has a radius Ro = 1.18 +/- 0.15 Mpc.
I can find nothing online that takes exception to Hubble's isolated group.
Apparently (from a paper like this) most cosmologists are comfortable with our Local Group on its own 'zero-velocity surface.'
This conclusion by Hubble still applies when considering redshift observations since 1936 have not publicly banished this island.
As this explanation proceeds, the concept of an intracluster medium has merit. The data suggests a galaxy group could have its own local medium separate from other groups and the IGM. This means each galaxy group might have its own sphere of a local medium. If our Local Group is consitent with other galaxy groups then each galaxy group might be a plasma sphere with a diameter of about 8 Mly.
This could be called an intracluster medium or ICM here.
This claim of a 8Mly sphere requires the spectra for all Local Group galaxies but they are not available. There should be proof for our Local Group being unique in the universe as Hubble defined it in 1936.
There are observations which imply instances of a distant ICM.
For example, Chandra has images of distant galaxy clusters where the space between galaxies is active in X-ray rather than confined to a filament. That observation implies an electrically active medium in the particular cluster. This is unlike our Local Group medium which does not exhibit that X-ray behavior for its ICM.
Here is a link is a collection of many galaxies and their velocities and types. This public data was compiled in this table. If no red shift z or velocity is published then 0 is shown. Those galaxies with a negative velocity (or a blue shift) have their row highlighted in yellow. I tried to compile as many galaxies as possible during that research time.
Galaxy Redshift Data
A prediction for spectra based on observations with only a few having a spectrum available:
First, most dwarf and satellite galaxies are excluded, unless worthy of a description. Their + or - velocity might be misleading though I expect that polarity comes from the ICM.
Next, in the following, LG is Local Group, MG is the nearby Maffei galaxy Group.
Most objects with a blue shift beyond the Local Group are spirals which are above the ecliptic in galaxy sky map quadrant NQ1, while some are in NQ2 (Ursa Major), or NQ3 (Como Berenices):
M31, Andromeda, in LG
M33, Triangulum, in LG
NGC 6822, Sagittarius, in LG (this irregular galaxy will be described below)
IC 1613, Cetus, in LG (this dwarf is an exception, will be described below.
Maffei 2, Cassiopeia, in MG
NGC 1560, Cassiopeia, in MG
NGC 1569, Cassiopeia, in MG
M81, Ursa Major (at 12 Mly it is further than those above)
M98, Como Berenices (at 44.4 Mly it is furthest)
M98 was part of the post on 2/22/2020 titled:
Cepheid Conflict in Como Berenices
M98 is one of 7 Messier galaxies in Como Berenices. M98 has a blue shift but the others have high red shifts. From that Febuary post which noted M98 in its vicinity, a study using Cepheids was conducted with M100, a bright face-on spiral galaxy. The study's results were to be discussed during a meeting of cosmologists. That much is known. No discussions, no conclusions or spectra are public regarding this M100 study. That post suggested the M100 red shift might have indicated a distance very different than the Cepheids indicated, so that is why results remain unpublished.
Based on minimal data though there are thousands of galaxies, there is a second element in the IGM critical to galaxy spectrum analysis; that second element is calcium. Part 1 described the known use of the hydrogen absorption line.
M31 is clearly a spiral galaxy which is emitting calcium atoms in the direction of the Milky Way. This direction of these atoms results in the observed blue shifts for several galaxies in that direction including M31 and its satellites and dwarfs.
M33 is further than M31. Simply because they are assigned different constellations indicates a notable distance, not needing a measurement. M33 must be generating its own stream of calcium atoms.
Maffei galaxy group has 3 spiral galaxies with blue shifts so one or more could be emitting calcium attoms. Perhaps the others get their blue shift from from the calcium source via the ICM. The critical decision is calcium is the atom in motion for the measured blue or red shifts, not hydrogen.
M81 is not in a nearby quadrant to others and must be emitting its own stream of calcium atoms.
M98 is an interesting galaxy for this conjecture. M98 is assumed to emit calcium atoms for its blue shift.
The current unknown is the cause of the large red shifts in the other associated Messier spiral galaxies in that ICM with M98. Their unknown spectra probably have calcium red shifts, not hydrogen red shifts. With no data, this is conjecture, but if they share calcium absorption lines then this suggests these 6 galaxies are in a common ICM. This could explain higher red shifts for the others in this ICM when the calcium atoms in the ICM execute an accumulation of red shift in the calcium absorption lines to get a greater red shift by distance. This IGM behavior was described in Part 1, but only for the hydrogen absorption line.
At red shifts less than 9, some galaxies, not all, have calcium atoms in their line of sight. The correct determination for each case of whether calcium is involved requires the spectrum which is available for only a small numberof galaxies. So much data are nissing so a complete explanation requires more data to replace the unknowns.
When missing data is identified, this conjecture will explain the alternatives.
NGC 6822 is another interesting galaxy for this conjecture about the IGM.
a) NGC 6822 is an irregular galaxy in the Local Group so it could be excluded,
b) its has a bar like a spiral galaxy but no visible arms so its type is Irr,Bar
b) most blue shift galaxies are spirals,
c) its AGN is not defined,
d) its diameter is only 8K ly,
e) its blue shift is only -57 km/s
f) its distance of 1.6 M ly puts it much closer than M31 which is at 2.54 M ly.
Its blue shift has this explanation:
Though it is nearer than M31 while not close to its direction, NGC 6822 is more likely to have a calcium blue shift from being in the Local Group than emitting its own calcium atoms.
IC1613 is a challenging galaxy for this conjecture about the IGM and requires investigation:
a) IC 1613 is an irregular dwarf galaxy in the Local Group, so it could be excluded,
b) other blue shift galaxies are spirals.
c) its AGN is not defined,
d) its diameter is only 10K ly,
e) its blue shift is similar to the more distant M110 which is an M31 satellite,
f) its distance of 2.38 M ly puts it closer than M31 and all the M31 satellite galaxies.
Its blue shift has 2 explanations
1) being closer to Earth than M31 means it could be in the M31 calcium atom stream but somehow it has a higher blue shift than the M31 satellites which are closer to M31 in a transverse direction (this comparison both in 3-D space and in velocity makes this scenario challenging), or
2) this undefined AGN somehow generates a number of atoms of an unknown element in the direction of the Milky Way within the Local Group, as either an absorption line or an emission line, to result in astronomers assigning this specific velocity and polarity.
The existence of metals in a LINER galaxy spectrum means this unusual galaxy has no defined list with candidate elements.
IC 1613 is a clear case where publishing a galaxy spectrum is crucial; without it, even a guess is difficult for a small irregular galaxy.
Both Magellanic Clouds have large red shifts. After using Hubble's Law to calculate distance, LMC is far beyond the distance of M31 (3.9 vs 2.54) while SMC is calculated to be near M31. Each unknown spectrum must have an anomaly.
Both Magellanic Clouds are also known to be surrounded by hydrogen gas clouds and even a hydrogen gas bridge is between them. Perhaps the pair has red shifted hydrogen absoption lines.
However, the Milky Way is a spiral galaxy similar to M31, M33, M98.
If the Milky Way is emitting calcium atoms in the direction of the Magellanic Clouds then their spectra would have red shifted calcium absorption lines. Their high red shifts indicate the velocity of the calcium atoms, not the presence of hydrogen atoms in the ICM in the line of sight.
Perhaps by a simlar process not by coincidence, LMC has a red shift at +275 km/s, SMC at +158 km/s, so both red shifts indicate a velocity similar to the M31 satellite M110 which is at -241 km/s.
This comparison suggests the calcium atoms emitted by the Milky Way have a similar velocity to those emitted by M31.
The implication for this pair of unknown spectra is absorption line red shifts of calcium, not hydrogen.
The other expected calcium absorption lines in this IGM analysis:
M31 is behind calcium red shifts at -301 km/s while M33 has them at -179 km/s, and M98 has -34 km/s.
The Maffei galaxy Group is obscured but its Maffei 2 has -17 km/s, NGC 1560 has -36 km/s, NGC 1569 has -104 km/s.
This supposition with calcium for the Magellanic Clouds was initially proposed in the 02/08/2020 post titled:
Galaxy Redshift Data Revelation
That post also analyzed the spectra of 5 galaxies used by UofO mentioned above.
Several of the 5 galaxies had high red shifts though none exceeded c.
Because these red shifts are much higher than observed for other galaxies at intermediate distances, this observation suggests an ICM behavior with calcium atoms for these 5 galaxies in their individual ICM; the 5 are too far apart to share 1 ICM.
In this scenario, the calcium atoms in the ICM have the cumulative red shift behavior observed with hydrogen atoms in the IGM.
The similar behaviors are recognized but cannot be explained without details for the ICM for these 5 galaxies. No names or coordinates were provided by UofO so whether any of these 5 galaxies are in named galaxy clusters (having their own ICM) is unknown.
That is the end of the attempt to predict unpublished spectra.
Since the hydrogen atom is formed with just a proton and electron, its presence in the IGM is expected.
The extent of calcium in the IGM is an interesting observation to explain.This conjecture is incomplete due to missing data.
Because calcium absorption lines are apparently missing from high red shift galaxies, the implication is calcium atoms remain in their original ICM and not travel into the IGM.
For all galaxies not mentioned here, the Part 1 explanation using hydrogen for a red shift is the default explanation until that specific galaxy's spectrum is found.
here is a table with many galaxies and highlighted rows for those few with a negative velocity, or a blue shift. The galaxies mentioned above are in this table.
There is a glaring problem with this IGM proposal:
there are many, many spiral galaxies with no blue shift. ??
The solution to that problem must begin with understanding how those few galaxies (idenified here) emit their calcium atoms. They are few but the number is greater than 1 which means the process repeats in different galaxies. After that first galaxy is understood then explaining the others is possible.
Using Cepheid variables for a calculated distance (without Cepheids these blue shift galaxies have a negative distance), M31 distance is 2.54 Mly, M33 is 2.73 Mly, M81 is 12Mly, M98 is 44.4 Mly.
IC 1613 is the closest blue shift galaxy but as the unique dwarf galaxy its usefulness for all the spiral galaxies is unknown.
M31 is the best candidate for further investigation by astronomers simply because it is the closest spiral galaxy with a blue shift.
Cosmologists should have an incentive to solve M31's mysteries. M31 certainly had numerous studies of its rotation curve. In 1936, the blue shift of M31 was simply excused despite its contradiction with the Hubble Flow. Perhaps that dismissal hindered anyone at the time who might pursue it, and also everyone else since then.
As noted in other posts, once a mistake becomes accepted as 'correct' that mistake is difficult to replace with a new correction.
Articles about M31 and/or its core are consistently about dark matter. (What an amazing distraction preventing useful research!!)
Some galaxies have their core classified as LINER, or Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region where helium, neon, oxygen, and sulfur emission lines are observed near the AGN or core. or on the surface of an exterrnal star (moving separate from the galaxy) captured in the galaxy spectrum
LINER galaxies demonstrate some galaxies exhibit the presence of certain metals though calcium is not in the LINER list. The LINER observation was published in 1980.
Without more galaxy spectra, this conjecture for the IGM has nothing more to proceed beyond this attempt.
Part 2 has the same conclusion as Part 1 for hydrogen in the IGM:
Absorption lines for a galaxy must be ignored because they originate outside the galaxy and are not a velocity for the galaxy.