**Cosmology View**

**Views on Cosmology and Physics**

By David Michalets

May 10, 2022

All the objects that we see have a measurable amount of material. That number is called its mass. In international units, it is stated in kg.

Energy exists in different forms. A few forms will be mentioned.

Energy can change into a different form in some events. Energy is always conserved.

One form is electromagnetic radiation, or light.

Another form of energy is kinetic energy.

When a force is applied to an object, the object will move. The time of this force on the object is a transfer of energy to this object, resulting in a velocity. The form of energy changed to kinetic energy.

Another force is required to change this object's velocity and direction. Friction is an external force. This is a transfer of kinetic energy in the moving object to thermal energy in the other object. In other words, friction causes heat.

Kinetic energy has a formula, where E is the object's kinetic energy (a subscript is used here), m is the object's mass, and v is its velocity.

Einstein claimed matter cannot exceed the velocity of light, or c.

Protons have been measured moving at multiples of c. Einstein made a mistake.

I begin with kinetic energy because its equation is in Section XV of his 1920 book on RELATIVITY.

The equations change from mv2 and become mc2.

I reviewed this book, presented its 33 sections of material, and offered my remarks to each section.

Review of Einstein's Book on Relativity__https://www.cosmologyview.com/Books/EBOR/ebor.html__

This is the equation for the maximum possible kinetic energy for a particular mass, based on Einstein's wrong assumption.

However, this is not exactly the expected equation, because Einstein's equation lacks the factor of 1/2, so this is the result for his defined energy:

This equation can have the maximum kinetic energy term replaced, with this result:

This is Einstein's equation, except that it has identified the meaning of E in the equation.

If one believes this equation truly represents an equivalence between mass and energy, then this is the equation for that relationship.

In simple terms, this equation suggests that:

The mass of an object is equal to the 2 times the maximum kinetic energy that this particular mass can carry, according to Einstein's speed limit.

This equation exists only because of that wrong speed limit.

By stating the equation simply, that sounds like another mistake.

The value for mass is the sum of all protons and electrons in an object, and this sum cannot be related to its motion.

Dropping the important subscript in the final equation leaves the familiar equation:

The subscript should not be removed, or its real meaning (a wrong limit of kinetic energy) is lost, because then there seems to be equivalence between mass and energy, but none exists.

Subscripts defining a context are very important in physics.

When the specific context for a variable is missing, then the variable can be assumed to have the broadest context.

This can lead to a wrong understanding of Einstein's ambiguous equation, when applied incorrectly to the broadest context.

The conclusion here is that the famous Einstein equation of mass and energy equivalence is invalid, simply because there is no speed limit for mass.

Einstein made mistakes. This famous equation, suggesting an equivalence of mass and energy, is another. Among them are

1) the speed limit on mass,

2) the denial of the instantaneous nature of the fundamental forces of gravity and electromagnetism,

3) replacing Newton?s real force of gravity with mathematical curvature (which was based on a misunderstanding a gravitational field),

4) non-existent black holes,

5) non-existent gravitational lensing,

6) non-existent gravitational waves.

The famous equation E = mc2 should be ignored, as it is based on a speed limit which does not exist in nature.

If there is a specific type of energy related to the mass of an object, then that relationship must be defined. After a theory is developed for this relationship with required predictions, then this new theory and its equations must be verified by experiment.

This energy equation is mentioned with nuclear fusion. An H-bomb released much energy. That event was not verification of Einstein's equation..

page created May, 2022

last change 05/10/2022