Cosmology Views

Making Spheres in Cosmology

Nearly all bodies in the universe are spheres.

This is because that is the most efficient shape.
A material with a given density has the sphere for the smallest volume.  Also, when the body rotates the centrifugal force is uniform on the surface.
A rotating solid body which is not a sphere will eventually fracture.

Cosmologists must explain these spheres.

For matter to maintain a shape it must have a lattice structure  for its bonds between atoms and molecules. The angles and distances in the lattice determine the characteristics of the material. Water molecules in a cloud  have very weak bonds between them resulting in a shape easily disturbed.

Here is an interesting example, from Wikipedia:

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a single layer of atoms in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. It is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. Graphene has a special set of properties which set it apart from other allotropes of carbon. In relation to its thickness, it is about 100 times stronger than the strongest steel. Yet its density is dramatically lower than any steel, with a surfacic mass of 0.763 mg per square meter.
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Any child who makes round cookies with their mother learns about spheres.

The sequence is simple even for a child.
1. make the dough,
2. make each ball of dough,
3. put the balls on the cookie sheet,
4. make sure the spacing is enough for the cookies during baking, if the dough flattens during baking.
5. bake the cookies until done,
6. slide the cookies off the sheet to cool before eating.

In step 2, the child learns how to make a sphere.

a portion of dough is put between the two hands, between the palms.

Both hands move in opposing circles to roll the dough.

More pressure between the hands will flatten the dough so the child must manage the pressure to get a smooth ball, or sphere.

The child learns about pressure.

If the ball is too small then the child adds more dough and repeats the last step.

If the ball is too big, then the child removes some dough from anywhere on the sphere and repeats the step of making a smooth ball. These steps can be repeated until the ball is acceptable.

If the dough crumbles then the dough is too dry.  Some form of liquid like butter, oil, or water, must be added to maintain the shape.
If the dough is too dry just more pressure cannot get a good ball.

The child learns about a lattice and its components.

In step 5 when baking, the child also learns about a lattice.

During baking the dough changes its texture so it might stiffen or flatten, Depending on the recipe the bottom of the cookie might harden into a crust.

If the dough is too moist the cookie will become very flat.

If the cookies cook too long or too hot some portion of the cookie could harden and burn.

Any of these results are changes in the lattice.  A surface which became a crust changed from a soft solid lattice into a hard solid lattice.

In this step, the child also learns heat can change the lattice to become a harder solid. The ingredients determine the final lattice, to prevent a flat cookie.

It is funny how much can be learned as a child.

Cosmologists have their problem to solve with spheres.

Having experience with cookie making could be helpful.

In our solar system there are many spheres, including the Sun, all the planets, many moons, and many but not all asteroids.

To explain our solar system, cosmologists have developed the nebular hypothesis.

from Wikipedia:

The nebular hypothesis is the leading theory, amongst scientists, which states that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun, which was slowly rotating.

The widely accepted modern variant of the nebular theory is the solar nebular disk model (SNDM) or solar nebular model. It offered explanations for a variety of properties of the Solar System, including the nearly circular and coplanar orbits of the planets, and their motion in the same direction as the Sun's rotation. Some elements of the original nebular theory are echoed in modern theories of planetary formation, but most elements have been superseded.

According to the nebular theory, stars form in massive and dense clouds of molecular hydrogen—giant molecular clouds (GMC). These clouds are gravitationally unstable, and matter coalesces within them to smaller denser clumps, which then rotate, collapse, and form stars. Star formation is a complex process, which always produces a gaseous protoplanetary disk (proplyd) around the young star. This may give birth to planets in certain circumstances, which are not well known. Thus the formation of planetary systems is thought to be a natural result of star formation. A Sun-like star usually takes approximately 1 million years to form, with the protoplanetary disk evolving into a planetary system over the next 10–100 million years.

The protoplanetary disk is an accretion disk that feeds the central star. Initially very hot, the disk later cools in what is known as the T Tauri star stage; here, formation of small dust grains made of rocks and ice is possible. The grains eventually may coagulate into kilometer-sized planetesimals. If the disk is massive enough, the runaway accretions begin, resulting in the rapid—100,000 to 300,000 years—formation of Moon- to Mars-sized planetary embryos. Near the star, the planetary embryos go through a stage of violent mergers, producing a few terrestrial planets. The last stage takes approximately a billion years. The formation of giant planets is a more complicated process. .< text continues . .>

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My comment:

The timing is interesting with 'runaway accretions' after our cookie making experience.

This scenario is like putting the cookie ingredients in a pile, spin it, and a cookie (or solar system) appears.

The ingredients cool before combining by gravity.

This no-bake hypothesis is worthless.

More than gravity is needed for changing lattices.  Energy from heat or compression is required for those changes.

Fortunately Electric Universe has other mechanisms beyond only an accretion process which can never provide the pressure to change the lattice structures of the original particles into the final form.

from Wikipedia:

Marklund convection, named after Göran Marklund, is a convection process that takes place in filamentary currents of plasma. It occurs within a plasma with an associated electric field, that causes convection of ions and electrons inward towards a central twisting filamentary axis. A temperature gradient within the plasma will also cause chemical separation based on different ionization potentials.

In Marklund's paper, the plasma convects radially inwards towards the center of a cylindrical flux tube. During this convection, the different chemical constituents of the plasma, each having its specific ionization potential, enters into a progressively cooler region. The plasma constituents will recombine and become neutral, and thus no longer under the influence of the electromagnetic forcing. The ionization potentials will thus determine where the different chemicals will be deposited

This provides an efficient means to accumulate matter within a plasma. In a partially ionized plasma, electromagnetic forces act on the non-ionized material indirectly through the viscosity between the ionized and non-ionized material.

Hannes Alfvén showed that elements with the lowest ionization potential are brought closest to the axis, and form concentric hollow cylinders whose radii increase with ionization potential. The drift of ionized matter from the surroundings into the rope means that the rope acts as an ion pump, which evacuates surrounding regions, producing areas of extremely low density.

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my comment:

This mechanism explains how heavier elements can be collected from space.

If this plasma were pinched then the compression mechanism is available to form spherical planets.

Two parallel plasma filaments can form a helix where the space between the mutually attracting filaments is compressed.

To make a star, the ingredient list is very short: many protons and electrons.

When this simple plasma is compressed under extreme pressure, the result is a lattice called metallic hydrogen where the protons form the lattice and the loose electrons circulate in the lattice maintaining the bonds in what is called condensed matter, where electromagnetic forces maintain the lattice rather than a molecular bond, so the result is a stable lattice rather than a huge individual molecule.

With the plasma in motion during compression a sphere or the Sun can result.

In the Sun this liquid metallic hydrogen changes its lattice configuration at different depths and layers resulting in changes in density.

The same compression mechanism can apply to creating a spherical non-hydrogen entity like a planet or moon.

I attached the only reference I could find for EU pinches.

I am sure I am missing details but EU is definitely not proposing a no bake recipe with the ingredients spread out in a disk which congeal and solidify on their own.