Cosmology View

My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Books by David Michalets

Einstein's Mistakes

With Forces and Light

8 Black Hole

This is section 8 of 12 in the web-book.

A black hole is an entity predicted by relativity.

8.1 Definition

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although the event horizon has an enormous effect on the fate and circumstances of an object crossing it, according to general relativity it has no locally detectable features. 

In many ways, a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover, quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass.
This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe. [Reference:   ]


All is "according to relativity" which involves only the moving observer's reference frame. No other observer observes curvature, so no other observer, like one on or near Earth can observe the curvature at a black hole.

The impossible claims of a black holeere detailed later in this section.

Even Albert Einstein knew a black hole is impossible, from his famous quote:

"Black holes are where God divided by zero."

A black hole is fictional.

8.2 Necessity

A black hole has a simple purpose in popular cosmology: an explanation for a source of X-rays.

Plasma physics is ignored by cosmologists,  so synchrotron radiation is also ignored. As a result, there is no available source for X-rays.

8.3 Plasmoid

Here is the standard explanation.

A plasmoid is a coherent structure of plasma and magnetic fields. Plasmoids have been proposed to explain natural phenomena such as ball lightning, magnetic bubbles in the magnetosphere, and objects in cometary tails, in the solar wind, in the solar atmosphere, and in the heliospheric current sheet. Plasmoids produced in the laboratory include field-reversed configurations, spheromaks, and in dense plasma focuses.
The word plasmoid was coined in 1956 by Winston H. Bostick to mean a "plasma-magnetic entity":

The plasma is emitted not as an amorphous blob, but in the form of a torus. We shall take the liberty of calling this toroidal structure a plasmoid, a word which means plasma-magnetic entity. The word plasmoid will be employed as a generic term for all plasma-magnetic entities. [Reference:   ]

8.4 Searches

A black hole does not exist, but one is proposed for the M87 galaxy core.

This video explains a plasmoid and the object observed in M87, in April 2020.  Its title:

Thornhill: Black Hole or Plasmoid? | Space News  ]


A black hole enables an impossible source of X-rays as a theoretical result of an extremely hot object. The solution was using a black hole which could supposedly hold an impossible mass within a point, or within a sphere having a zero diameter.

All objects claimed to be a black hole are sources of synchrotron radiation indicating a plasmoid and not a black hole with its impossible accretion disk.

The infamous fabricated image in April 2020 of an object in M87 galaxy was not a black hole. It was a plasmoid, covered in a previous section.

A plasmoid has a torus shape. The fabricated image had to have a ring because an accretion disk was expected,

No black hole has ever been detected because it does not exist.

A story in April 2020 was titled:
Astronomers saw a star dancing around a black hole. And it proves Einstein's theory was right

 For many years astronomers have been seeking a star orbiting around the claimed black hole at the center of our Milky Way. If its orbit is a valid Kepler ellipse then they seek to apply Kepler's 3rd law to calculate the MBH mass. This was done initially with the star S1 several years ago to derive the unjustified number of billions of solar masses. Unfortunately, someone noticed S1 was not a valid ellipse; instead of the claimed period of 16 years, its claimed radius required many thousands of years. The invalid mass persists but astronomers seek another star to try again for a new mass calculation. [Reference:  ]


Obviously S2 orbit is invalid as well because it is not closed, as stated in the article.
Because astronomers have been watching for a few decades, so perhaps this time, they gave up and came up with this "rosette" orbit to bring up Einstein - which is obviously effective to get your story published.

Here is the star's story:

S2, also known as S0–2, is a star that is located close to the radio sourceSagittarius A*, orbiting it with an orbital period of 16.0518 years, a semi-major axis of about 970 au. [Reference:   ]


S2 = 970 au, 16.052 y

Jupiter= 5.203au,  11.86 y
Saturn= 9.54au, 29.46y

With Kepler's 3rd law:

S2 = 970 au takes about 30,200yr

S2= 16.0518 yr is for about 6.5au

the observed orbit parameters for S2 are not valid for a Kepler ellipse.

These news stories never reveal the importance of this search for a star like S2 and the requirement for a valid ellipse.

With a valid ellipse, astronomers can use Newton's change to Kepler's 3rd law to calculate the number of solar masses at the core with a known mass in an orbiting star. The mass for S2 will be a guess. With electromagnetic forces in play this calculation might be debated for many reasons.

Currently, every black hole claimed to be in every galaxy is assigned a value of solar masses loosely based on the estimated number of stars in that galaxy. That assumption has no basis. It originates in the mistake a galactic disk rotates by gravity. With that mistake the galactic core must behave like the massive Sun for the lighter planets.

Unfortunately for that theory, the 8 planets in orbit around the Sun are nothing like the millions of stars in complex structures called arms of a spiral galaxy. One galaxy can have multiple arms.
Scientists in 2010 concluded the M31 disk rotation is consistent with that expected from the galactic magnetic field. [Reference:

If the Milky Way core, which is claimed to have a SMBH for the roughly 300 billion stars in the galaxy, is monitored to seek an orbiting star. When finally found, this will be a significant milestone for black hole advocates.

Until that star is found, there is no black hole in any galaxy with a justification for its claimed number of solar masses.

This is a basic problem for cosmologists of no evidence or no justification for any claims about a SMBH in every galaxy. Cosmologists hope this finding and calculation can salvage all their claims spanning many years. Unfortunately for them, an orbit with a larger radius for its measurement requires a longer period like in thousands of years (like S2 needs).

One might expect rules to be broken about the orbit parameters to achieve the crucial calculation.

Every scientific claim requires evidence.

Currently, there is no evidence for any value of a black hole's mass because a correct measurement has never been done.

If a measurement ever succeeds for a star in motion around a possible "hole" in space, whatever is in that "hole" it is not a black hole as defined by relativity, because a black hole, with mass residing in a singularity, is impossible by physics.

8.4 summary of section

There is no black hole.

Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.

last change 01/25/2022