**Cosmology View**

My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Book by David Michalets

**Einstein's Mistakes**

**With Forces and Light**

3 Light by Gardi

This is section 3 of 12 in the web-book.

Lori Gardi produced 2 excellent videos relevant to this book.

**3.1 Planck's Constant**

Lori Gardi discovered a mistake with the units of Planck's constant.

Excerpt from her paper:

It is the contention of the author that a mistake was

made by convention more than 100 years ago when

the units of frequency were given as [1/s] (since the

[1] in the unit section is ambiguous).

(end)

Here is my brief explanation of her thorough explanation.

Planck's equation is E=hf

where E= energy, h = Planck's constant, f = frequency of light.

Lori analyzes the units of each item in Planck's equation, and reveals the units of the left side do not match the units of the right side,

She assigns the mismatch to the units in iem h, when they are not compaible with the standard units of frequency for itm f, to get the standard units of energy, for item E.

The equation implies energy is associated with frequency.

She also offers a clear explanation of how light carries energy in a wavelength of light.

Her conclusion is there is no photon.

The video clearly describes her explanations. [Reference:

Planck's Constant and the Nature of Light

by Lori Gardi

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325462944_Planck's_Constant_and_the_Nature_of_Light

Video produced by Lori Gardi having the same name as the paper

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vce_1yfTTBY

**3.2 Electric Field**

Though suggesting no change to Maxwell'a work. in my opinion, she procuduced a video which makes an electric field easier to understand.[Reference:

What is a Field?

https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=what+is+a+field+fractal+woman

]

Observation:

The electric field can result in the mutual, instantaneous, electric force between 2 charges, but diminishing by the inverse-square of their mutual distance.

This electric field is similar to the field around a particle of mass

The field from a particle of mass can result in the mutual, instantaneous, force of gravity between 2 masses, but diminishing by the inverse-square of their mutual distance. This force was defined by Newton.

**3.3 Summary of section.**

There is no photon and Planck's constant has a mistake in its units.

Both conclusions are very important to physics.

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last change 01/24/2022