My views on Cosmology and Physics
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Book by David Michalets
An (original) line precedes original content from the source.
A (remark) line precedes my remark from my review of the preceding original content.
My remark applies to only this section of the original.
Section FC of 35
After reviewing Einstein's book about his theories of relativity, I recommend that all the work done by Einstein should be doubted, unless already independently verified.
The book did not reveal more information about Einstein's famous energy equation, which implied a direct mass-energy relationshop, but the equation was never given its context in terms of physics.
Since the equation has no clear justification, "E=mc^2" should be ignored by scientists and everyone else until that conjecture has been verified.
The E in the equation has no context for an amount of undefined energy.
Thermodynamics describes the transfers or transformations of different forms of energy. They include:
a) atomic energy state, where energy is held in the atom's electron shells,
An atom can aborb the energy in a wavelength of light and transfer that energy to its electrons,
When an atom drops to gound state, then the energy is transformed and emitted as a eavelength of light
b) molecular vibration or thermal energy.
Condensed matter (liquid or solid) can hold energy in the vibrations of moleculat bonds.
b) kinetic energy, where energy is held in mass in motion.
When the motion stops, this energy must be transferred, not lost.
It can be transformed to thermal energy when the kinetic energy becomes thermal energy in the object stopping the motion.
The E in E=mc^2) has no context and no relation to the other known forms of energy.
Einstein could be wrong if the equation should be cubed, not squared, or perhaps a constant is required for the application of this new form of energy.
This equation must be verified, for both its formula and its application in physics.
I expect that others, who understand all of Isaac Newton's work will agree Einstein made a mistake when using a gravitational field, not the force equation, which was well-accepted and given credit for finding the planet Neptune.
A gravitational field and its free fall acceleration has a very limited context, that of being near a large massive body and observing tiny bodies accelerate downward to the massive body.
Galileo observed this behavior. Apollo astronauts repeated the experiment on the surface of the Moon.
This behavior will never be observed in another context, so it is a mistake to use it in cosmology.
Space-time ignored electromagnetism, which are instantaneous forces.
Space-time ignored that gravity acts instantaneously.
Space-time must be discarded, for so many reasons.
I disagree with and several of Einstein's crucial conclusions.
1) There are no instantaneous forces; they act at a rate limited by the velocity of light.
He claimed Maxwell was wrong about instantaneous, but Einstein is wrong, not Maxwell.
2) Matter cannot move at a velocity of light.
His second conclusion was falsified many years ago, with measured redshifts of z > 1.
These superluminal redshifts are from a Lyman-alpha emission line.
When the proton captures an electron, the new hydrogen atom changes to its ground state by transferring that energy into the corresponding wavelength of light. When the atom is moving at that instant. the kinetic energy of the atom participates in the Doppler effect, to change the emitted wavelength, based on direction and velocity.
Matter does not have a velocity limit.
3) Universe does not have structure driven by such conjectures as a) a coordnate system having 4 dimensions, b) mass density of the universe..
Isaac Newton defined the universe correctly.
The universe has absolute, unbounded or infinite space, independent of all observers.
The universe has an incredible number of items in this space.
We can observe and measure those objects.
Our Milky Way galaxy is one of the countless galaxies in the space beyond it.
A human lifetime is too brief for exploring such distances.
The universe has absolute time, independent of all observers. Man defined the increment of time. We maintain a common reference time, driven by atomic clocks, used by all observers.
Each observer defines the coordinate system and its physical reference point that they are using for their measurements. When other observers also use this coordinate system and its physical reference point, then measurements can be shared and independently verified.
The universe cannot have a coordinate system.
After reviewing this book, there is nothing that Einstein proposes which helps the progress of physics. Dropping his disruption enables physics to use real, instantaneous forces, rather than trying to apply Einstein's illusions.
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last change 05/05/2022