Cosmology Views

Spectrum Trivia

First, Hydrogen in brief:

The Lyman series is associated with the n=2 orbital in Hydrogen while the Balmer series is for the n=3 orbital.

Lyman-alpha, Ly-α, Lyman-α, K-alpha, K-α are all 1215.67 Angstroms.

Hydrogen-alpha,Ba-α, Balmer-alpha are all 6563 Angstroms.

Lyman-beta, Ly-β are 1025.722 Angstroms.

Hydrogen-beta,Ba-β are 4861 Angstroms.

Rarely encountered:

Lyman-gamma, Ly-γ, are 972.537 Angstroms

Hydrogen-gamma, Hydrogen-γ, Balmer-gamma are 4340 Angstroms.

A crucial mistake is  mixing Ly-α with Hydrogen-α because these "alphas" are different coming from a different series.

Spectrum Data with wavelengths and ranges

gamma rays 1pm or E-12 m
hard x-rays 10pm or E-11
soft x-rays 100 pm or E-10 or Angstroms
extreme UV 10 nm or E-9
near UV 100 nm or E-7
UVC 100-280 nm
UVB 280-315 nm
UVA 315-400 nm

visible colors 380-750 nm

near infrared 1 um or E-6
mid infrared 10 um or E-5
far infrared 100 um or E-4
EHF 1 mm or E-3
SHF 10 mm or E-2
UHF 100 mm or E-1
VHF 1 m
HF 10 m
MF 100 m
LF  1km
VLF 10 km
ULF 100 km
SLF 1000 km or E+6
ELF E+7


NIST element lines are in Angstroms = 1E-10 m or 0.1 nm.

selections are by NIST intensity at 1000

Argon 671.8513 A, 723.3606 A, 1048.1987 A

 NIST table (can select an element with {eriodic Table   button near top using the periodic table; link is to calcium)

helium 303.7804, 584.33436 A

Hydrogen Lyman-alpha  1215.66824 A  or 121.6 nm (UV)

Wikipedia uses nm:

hydrogen alpha 656.45337 nm or Ballmer-alpha - red
hydrogen beta 486.13615 nm or Ballmer-beta - aqua
hydrogen gamma 434.0462 nm or Ballmer-gamma - blue
hydrogen delta 410.174 nm or Ballmer-delta - violet
hydrogen epsilon 397.0072 nm or Ballmer-epsilon -UV
hydrogen zeta 688.9049 nm or Ballmer-zeta -UV
hydrogen nu 383.5384 nm or Ballmer-nu - UV

Lyman limit or Lyman Break 912


Others:

Al II 1671
Al III 1863

Fe II 2382
Mg II 2798

Ne III 3869
Ne V 3426

O II 3727
O III 4959
O III 5007

C II 1335
C IV 1548.195,  1550.770

Fe II 2382.765,  2600.173
Mg II 2796.352,  2803.531

Si IV 1393.755,  1402.770
Si II 1527

calcium 3933.6614,  3968.4673 A

carbon 687.346 A,  1930.906 A

Iron 2382.0376,  2483.2708 A
magnesium 2795.5301,  2852.1251 A

neon 460.7284 A

nitrogen 645.179,  1199.550 A

oxygen 1302.168 A

potassium  495.14 A, 612.62 A
potassium 7664.8991, 7694.9645 A

silicon 1264.7379, 1988.9937,  2881.5771 A

sulfur 1425.030, 1473.995, 1807.311 A

tellurium 2002.028, 4686.91 A

tin 1290.880 A, 1400.440, 1474.997 A

titanium 3349.405 A

Zinc 2025.4845 A, 2062.011 , 2099.9273  , 2138.5735 A

For an academic interest in hydrogen, the Paschen series ( n from 4 to 3) begins with its alpha at 1875 nm or 18,750 Angstroms, or in infrared.
The hydrogen Brackett  series ( n from 5 to 4) begins with its alpha at 4051 nm or 40,510 Angstroms, or in far infrared.


Values are from several sources, such as one with a spectrum (usually a quasar) having those specific lines.