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 Arp's Legacy

Halton Arp noted that high redshift quasars were often near low redshift galaxies. If high redshift means far away, while low redshift means not far, he correctly concluded there must be a problem with redshifts.

Cosmologists never addressed the scenario with a reasonable explanation. Universe expansion is not one.

I have explained in posts and in books the problems with redshifts. They are always measured wrong.

Arp was right, but as an astronomer he did not know the mechanism behind the numbers.
Many galaxies use the redshift from neutral hydrogen emission lines. The neutral atoms are pulled toward the large galaxy by gravity, so the atoms are not fast.

Apparently, Arp did not know quasar redshifts come from ions capturing ions. These ions are moving toward the plasmoid by the electric force between opposing charges, so these ions move faster, than if they were pulled only by gravity.

Galaxies and quasars have different mechanisms, so their redshift numbers are not equivalent.

Astronomers and cosmologists have finally discovered a way to reconcile the redshift problem noted by Arp a few decades ago. They did it wrong.

The proposed solution is a gravitational lens!

There are several surveys of the sky looking for gravitational lenses.
One is the Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey, or CLASS.

Here is an excerpt from one of the lenses they detected.

CLASS B1152+199 and B1359+154. B1152+199 is a 1.6" double, with a background quasar at z=1.019 lensed by a foreground galaxy at z=0.439.

(Excerpt end)

I will repeat how they explain Arp's complaint with redshifts, because it is incredible:

a background quasar at z=1.019 lensed by a foreground galaxy at z=0.439

The combination of near and far being adjacent is allowed because the quasar is lensed!

When it's lensed, it's not really there!

Astronomers have yet to find the correct solution for redshifts, despite Arp informing others of this problem years ago. This lack of response is simply because redshifts are the basis for so many other mistakes like expansion and the big bang Fixing the mistake with redshifts also requires fixing everything else.

date posted 12/08/2021