My views on Cosmology and Physics
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.Atomic Mass Defect Alternative
This book Atomic Mass Defect Alternative provides an alternate explanation for the atomic mass defect. This anomaly in particle physics currently has a suspect explanation. The simple definition of this defect is the atom's measured mass is not equal to the total of the masses of its subatomic particle components, which are protons and electrons. A neutron in the nucleus is a combination of those 2. The number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus equals the net charge of the nucleus, which is the number of protons having no attached electron. Neutrons have no net charge so their number does not affect the number of orbiting electrons.
Each atom of an element has a specific number of protons and electrons.
The current explanation for this mass defect proposes the change in the atom's measured mass from expected was lost from the atom, but somehow was converted into something called nuclear binding energy.
Using binding in the name of this energy implies it can sustain a force in a nucleus. Unfortunately, no explanation is provided to justify any of the assumptions including a) its calculation (which is only a change in units), b) the application of either a new form of energy or a new force having no defined mechanism. Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) is assumed to have the explanation of this binding energy.
There is no evidence for protons having a reduced mass after ejection from a nucleus.
My alternate explanation proposes a new behavior for a proton based on the observational evidence. A proton while in a nucleus is compressed against other positive protons, causing a slight reduction in both its size and measured mass. There is no mass lost in the nucleus. There is no conversion of mass into a new undefined form of energy called nuclear binding energy. The nucleons are held within the nucleus by the electrostatic force between adjacent charged particles.
Nuclear binding energy is simply the excuse when ignoring a proton's mass is affected when compressed against other positive protons in a nucleus.
After ejection from the nucleus, the proton's mass returns to normal.here is no evidence of mass lost when converted to a new form of energy.
The basic mistake or misunderstanding is that a new energy from the mass defect is a behavior at the level of the atom. However, the change in measured mass occurs is at the level of the nucleons.
This book presents the case mass defect originates in the individfual nucleons.
All 118 elements are included here, and many of their measured isotopes, to cover many instances of this behavior.
My alternate explanation proposes a new behavior for a proton based on the observational evidence. There is no mass lost in the nucleus which is converted into a new undefined form of energy called nuclear binding energy. The nucleons are held within the nucleus by the electrostatic force between adjacent charged particles.
Nuclear binding energy is simply the excuse when ignoring a proton's mass is reduced when compressed against other positive protons in a nucleus. This explanation is much simpler than invoking QCD.
All 118 elements are included here, and many of their measured isotopes to cover most instances of this behavior.
The contents of this book supsede the mass defect content in my self-published paperback titled Practical Particle Physics, in December 2020. This pdf has additional material for its narrative.
I noticed the book The Nature of the Atom, about the Structured Atomic Model (SAM) has section 9 about mass defect but never mentions a change in mass. This book about SAM mostly relies on binding energy and the conventional explanation of a mass defect and binding energy. This acceptance of QCD also implies acceptance of lost mass in the nucleons.
I found then ssociation of energy per nucleon but energy is wrong when the defect is mass. Mass defect is about measuring mass in amu which is always the units in the periodic table for each element.
SAM has had after its extensive development efforts, but I cannot know whether the permanent mass loss per nucleon in the QCD accepted explanation was truly considered by SAM. SAM covers many topics and I cannot tell how much a proposed change in the origin of a mass defect affects its big picture.
The pdf file ( about 1MB ) can be freely copied and distributed. Physics needs help.