Measuring Galaxies book 7
I just self-published my 7th book, titled Measuring Galaxies.
How we measure a galaxy is important because there are many assumptions driving our conclusions.
The important conclusion:
Every galaxy in the universe has its velocity measured wrong!
This is important to the EU community because apparently Thunderbolts never questioned and just accepted Halton Arp's wrong interpretation of redshifts.
There are 2 fundamental mistakes in the measurement of a galaxy's velocity:
1) Galaxies are NOT stars.
This should be obvious, with billions compared to only one.
Unfortunately, a galaxy has its velocity measured like one might measure a star, when assuming their spectra are similar.
The visible surface of the sun is called the photosphere because that spherical surface is radiating the light we see.
A star, as a light source in motion can exhibit the Doppler effect, because it is also a mass in motion, having kinetic energy which participates in the energy transfer called the Doppler effect.
A galaxy cannot exhibit the Doppler effect because it is not the original light source.
The spectrum of a star can have absorption lines from atoms in the line of sight, or (usually) on its surface. With increasing distance from the star, only those on the surface wil be observed in the spectrum from the line of sight.
Similarly, every galaxy has its radiation coming from the billions of stars in the galaxy mixed with clouds of gas and dust. With increasing distance, atoms near the stars are not observed in the conglomerate spectrum. Galaxies can also be at an angle to the line of sight affecting the combination of light sources to the observer.
Unlike a star, a galaxy does not have a single radiating surface. Space is not truly empty, because there are atoms dispersed in the space between galaxies.
As a result, the spectrum of every galaxy is similar, with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet, through visible, to infrared (not visible but felt as heat).
Every galaxy has a relatively flat distribution of energy across the continuum of wavelengths. There is just a ripple of different intensities. Every change in this continuum is either
a) an absorption line (seen as a narrow dip), caused by an atom absorbing its characteristic wavelength to transfer that energy to its electrons, or
b) an emission line (seen as a narrow peak), when an atom transfers energy from its electrons to the characteristic wavelength carrying that energy.
A galaxy has no surface, so all absorption and emission lines originate in atoms in the line of sight to the galaxy.
2) Every absorption and emission line is NOT from the galaxy.
There are 2 fundamental mistakes and the Andromeda galaxy, M31, demonstrates both.
The M31 spectrum has absorption lines, revealing there are calcium ions in the line of sight moving away from the M31 galactic corona at 400 km/s. This is the same velocity of calcium ions moving away from our Sun, in the solar wind, but from a slightly different mechanism. This velocity is a line of sight measurement.
Just like our solar wind radiates in all directions, these calcium ions are moving in all directions, but away from M31. The same relative motion is seen from every direction. Because we are measuring from here on Earth, these ions are moving toward Earth. There is a frequently told, silly story that M31 is on a collision course with us and the Miky Way Galaxy.
Whenever you ever hear someone say something like "M31 is on a collision course to hit us" you can respond, with certainty, "M31 is on a collision course with every galaxy in the universe because that silly story is based on a mistake." The silly response is appropriate for the ridiculous, unjustified, claim that M31, having 1 trillion stars, and is moving only directly in the line of sight toward Earth, at the same velocity as atoms in our solar wind.
The proper motion of M31, which could be in any combination of directions (left/right, up/down, away/toward), cannot be measured using only atoms in the line of sight.
There have been Thunderbolts presentations suggesting an acceptance of the M31 blue shift as a valid measurement. That is a mistake.
I would not spend so much time, just to publish such a negative conclusion about a fundamental mistake about galaxies in cosmology.
To justify my time and do something having a positive outcome, I created my own database, in Excel, having data from over 600 galaxies. The data include celestial coordinates and constellation, galaxy type, magnitude, size (or diameter), claimed velocity and distance. Interacting galaxies and cluster membership are also identified, when available.
This format enables:
a) getting the distribution of the respective galaxy types by quadrant or constellation,
b) calculating the angular separation, in right ascension and declination, between any 2 galaxies in the set,
Note: I did not perform (b) for the many possible combinations, but the format enables this to be done for any single combination.
c) presenting details extracted from the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, NED. These include the methods used for each galaxy's velocity and distance. The spectra in NED are the evidence for the mistake with every galaxy,
d) charting any column of one attribute from all the galaxies.
I did not perform (d) for all columns, only a few for the book, but the format enables another chart for any column, as needed.
The book provides a link to the large Excel file (over 1000 rows and over 70 columns in the main worksheet), which is mostly just public data but in a useful format. There is added value with the conversion of Right ascension as described by hours, minutes, degrees into only degrees, from 15 degrees per hour of RA. There is added value with the conversion of declination as described by degrees, minutes, seconds, into only degrees.
There is value added in already providing (a) in the worksheet.
The book describes the various methods being used for redshift and velocity measurement or for distance measurement based on luminosity. Hubble's Law in invalid when lacking a correct velocity.
Cosmology has many assumptions based on the wrong velocities. Among them are the big bang and universe expansion. This science is broken.
I just provided the important conclusions from the book, so no one has to get the book to consider their consequences.