Cosmology View

My views on Cosmology and Physics

site navigation menu


Balances in Physics

I finally realized my objection to electro-gravity is its distortion of the fundamental balances present in physics. There are 2 fundamental forces, not 1. Electro-gravity proposes the single electric force can explain the second force, gravity.

Both the forces of gravity and electric charge are mutual and instantaneous at inverse square of distance. When a mutual force is attractive then the bodies will move toward each other by this mutual force resulting in their collision.  When one observes the universe, there are rarely collisions beyond those in traffic. There are inherent balances in physics despite these 2 fundamental forces.

At the atomic level, there are only 2 fundamental particles, the electron and proton. They have an opposite electric charge. The proton has 1836 times the mass of the electron. This double imbalance actually forces a balanced behavior. Rather than directly colliding with the proton or a nucleus, an electron will always take a circular orbit.  The much lighter electron orbits around a much heavier proton or nucleus. The constant radius maintains the same mutual electric force during the entire orbit. As the number of positive charges increases in the nucleus (by fusion, either hot or cold), the number of electrons captured in orbit matches to maintain a balance in net charge of the atom. This is another balance in physics. Each successive ring increases in radius.  All the atoms follow the same sequence of adding circular rings and their capacity of electrons.

Stability is achieved despite the nucleus always exerting a force of attraction with its electrons and the electrons mutually repelling others. The circular orbits provide symmetry for these forces. The outer ring, known as the valence ring, defines the atom's interaction with other atoms.

This outer ring results in space between a nucleus and the other nucleus with the valence ring of electrons between them, serving as a mutual connection.

One might consider the empty space in an atom as inefficient but the space enables stability with the mutual electric forces, among the positive and negative charges, at play.

The circular orbits prevent compression by their symmetry, so atoms and molecules can collide and rebound behaving like a coherent particle despite all the internal space among its electrons.

Moving charges create a magnetic field. This enables plasma behaviors, where protons and electrons can move together in a filament bound by this magnetic field, without the protons and electrons combining to form hydrogen atoms.

At the level of a star, protons and electrons can combine to form condensed matter. Here, the mutual force of repulsion between protons enables a stable lattice configuration, with free electrons circulating in the lattice to balance the electric forces. This configuration is also called metallic hydrogen (which is a proton and electron). In the Sun, the lattice configuration can change with depth. The force of gravity between masses results in compression toward the center and also increasing density with depth leading to a solid core. The rest of the Sun remains  liquid out to the photosphere surface. The Sun is a perfect sphere (from gravity acting on liquid) with different rotation rates by latitude.

At the solar system level, the weaker force of gravity dominates over an electric force because of the nature of this force and because the bodies can develop an ionosphere to capture a layer of electric charge opposite that of the body, so the solar system can perceive the body as being neutral and no longer reacting to an external electric force. When that happens, only gravity affects the body.

The mutual force of attraction between large masses results in their mutual rotation around their center of gravity. With the imbalance between masses, the orbit of each body is elliptical, with the lighter body having the wider orbit. The changing distance in the orbit results in a varying force, enabling stability.

All the planets orbit the Sun around the system's  center of gravity.  All the asteroids and comets orbit this way, as well.

All the moons around a planet orbit around the center of gravity with their primary.

The outermost tiny moons of Jupiter and Saturn are sometimes noted as missing, after being disturbed by gravity from elsewhere. When another asteroid is captured, it will also take an elliptical orbit around the center of gravity of this planet's collection of moons.

I perceive balance in physics when the forces of gravity and electric are distinct. They are certainly disproportionate. However, this is just like the proton and electron. Each force has its role in physics. Proposing one force, only the electric, as a solution does not imply balance.

The current force of gravity never exhibits repulsion, as detailed above.

There is no need for gravity to exhibit a behavior of repulsion as proposed by electro-gravity.

date posted 04/03/2021