Ray Gallucci: The Plausibility of Quantized Redshift | Space News
Here is the video
This is the second interview of a two-part presentation with Dr. Raymond Gallucci describing his independent analysis of alternatives to standard interpretations of cosmic redshift.
In this episode, Dr. Gallucci concludes his analysis on the mathematical plausibility of the respective alternative redshift explanations by scientists Halton Arp and C.C. Su.
my comment to the video:
Thunderbolts Project seems to be determined to create "something" from the Halton Arp quasar red shift data.
The crucial aspect of this "plausibility" is making sure the causation of the quasar red shifts is understood before trying to explain the correlation with a particular red shift value. Arp did not recognize there are 2 red shift values for each quasar. In his book, two quasars had an ignored red shift value.
Therefore when beginning with his theories, any apparent correlation must use reliable data.
Arp's book Seeing Red included a spectrogram on page 11 to establish the foundation of all conclusions to follow.
Here is the figure
After a detailed examination of this figure, I can assume Arp never did that exercise and I suspect those involved in this video also did not.
The reason for that assumption is this single spectrogram ruins some of Arp's conclusions.
Here is an analysis of the first figure in Arp's book Seeing Red.
The East Lobe has z = 0.653, calculated from the metallic lines; Mg, Ne, O, and also H-beta.
This line was not identified in the figure:
The East Lobe has z = 6.65, calculated from H-alpha.
The West Lobe has z = 0.398, calculated from the metallic lines: Mg, Ne, O, and also H-beta.
The West Lobe has z = 6.5, calculated from H-alpha.
The metallic ions have the same velocity though having different masses. This suggests a plasma behavior of charges moving together.
This conclusion conflicts with Arp's proposal of red shift affected by a change in mass implying a change in gravity.
The z for the H-alpha line having a different z suggests that proton was moving separately from the other particles.
The book failed to recognize the higher red shifts from the H-alpha emission lines.
When the video uses only Arp's values then it is using only the metallic ion red shift.
One could conclude the motions of ions are driven by the force from an electric field which depends on charge, not by the force of gravity which depends on mass.
At 3:13 in the video, a relationship between red shift and quasar mass is proposed.
This proposal is inappropriate because the actual measured motions seem driven by the charges not their masses.
There is no basis for any quasar mass value in an equation because no quasar ever had its mass measured. As a plasmoid, its mass is in plasma, or many protons, electrons, and some ions.
This exercise is just picking numbers to fit a contrived formula.
At 4:44 an image from Arp shows red shift values dropping as each quasar is further from its parent.
The actual 3-D velocity of any object in the figure is unknown.
The mechanism for the red shift appears to get a lower value over distance from origin suggesting a change over time.
At 5:30, the equation written for the numbers gets a close match in the plot of the numbers.
With fitting parameters as needed, this plot can only suggest a relationship but cannot prove it.
At 6:34, a quote from 1922 says red shift is caused by velocity.
I have shown in my posts and books, all galaxy and quasar red shifts are never its velocity.
At 7:20, a quote is presented where the mass of an electron is associated with a photon.
With both synchrotron radiation and atomic emission lines there is no behavior of light associated with the mass of its source.
Synchrotron radiation is related to the velocity of the electrically charged particles. Emission lines depend on the atom's electron configuration at that moment.
In the same quote: "the sacred Hubble Constant is just the inverse age of the universe."
Hubble's constant is essentially red shift divided by distance. It is the factor for the inter-galactic medium red shift for galaxies. There is nothing in here about age.
I must point out in 1936, Edwin Hubble noted the red shift connection to distance began with galaxies beyond our Local Group.
One should conclude a galaxy red shift is driven by distance in the inter-galactic medium and is not a velocity.
One could conclude Arp was not aware of Hubble's conclusion, just like most astronomers. I post that every chance I get because it affects all galaxy data. I notified Thunderbolts of this underlying mistake with galaxy red shifts months ago.
The video takes a particular series of quasar red shift numbers, creates a formula which can get close to those values.
It has 3 essential components:
1) a constant created for the equation,
2) a value which is claimed to be a mass ratio
3) an offset for the curve.
In the 0 to 5 sequence the mass ratio is proposed to change so it follows the red shift change.
This exercise is just creating a formula using flexible factors, then finding a way for the 0-5 sequence to get values for the equation results to get close to the sample.
It is unclear but it sounds like some outliers still fail to conform.
This equation proposes a change in mass causes a change in the red shift. The basis is wrong when knowing the metallic ion velocities are not driven by gravity.
One can only hope cosmology drops any attempt to explain Arp's list of quasar red shifts before taking a new approach.
These attempts include changes in age or mass, though the mechanism is electrical.
Instead, this pursuit must begin with :
1) making sure the quasar red shift processes are understood because Arp used a small sample,
2) red shift values are correct for the analysis because a quasar has different red shift values from its two mechanisms, and
3) investigating changes in the plasmoid's electric field.
One must note the quasar red shifts come from tiny positive particles in motion.