When astronomers mention a galaxy redshift they describe it as only a velocity or a z value.
They never say WHAT shifted.
After a long search, I found only 6 spectrum graphs for galaxies showing their absorption and emission lines. Astronomers must have made observations to justify measurements for every z value and/or a relative velocity published for countless galaxies. Nearly all of these data are not available to the public, or my many attempts with web searches missed them.
Astronomers are making claims with no evidence. One should expect this data to be readily available for independent analysis. Clearly that is not a goal. Creating a gif file (lower byte count) is not difficult.
I suspect the common practice is the graphs are shared with only colleagues, then placed in papers in academic journals to be purchased so more data becoming available is unlikely.
There is a definite need for archived data to be available - a data revelation.
<< an opinion: I take this data negligence personally. In my career every claim required execution and proof. If the system did not perform as claimed, the failure is a legal liability. There is no evidence with galaxies claims. >>>
A quasar spectrum sample can be found with a search for "Basics of Quasar Spectra" getting that title on Caltech site. Quasars have a high red shift in a hydrogen atom's emission line. The atom is fast, The emission line indicates nothing about the quasar velocity.
5 Galaxy spectrum samples can be found with a search for "High Redshift Quasars in the ING Wide Field Survey" getting that title on University of Oregon site (link provided).
Quasars are not the subject of this post. However, these 5 figures are for galaxies and are classified wrong.
The M31 galaxy spectrum can be found with a search for "Observing the spectrum of M31" getting that title on NASA site.
This link has the other 5 galaxies.
Summary of the linked article:
these 5 unnamed nebula objects (only a constellation is provided) are in a page of quasars. There is no redshifted emission line shown in any of them suggesting all are galaxies, not quasars.
cluster nebula in Virgo at 1200km/s from the shifted calcium H&K lines
cluster nebula in Ursa Major at 1500km/s from the shifted calcium H&K lines
cluster nebula in Corona Borealis at 2200km/s from the shifted calcium H&K lines
cluster nebula in Bootes at 39000km/s from shifted calcium H&K lines
cluster nebula in Hydra at 61000km/s from the shifted calcium H&K lines
For reference, M31 (with its Calcium H&K absorption lines) is In Andromeda in (sky quadrant NQ1).
Their relative positions in the sky:
Bootes (NQ3), Como Berenices (NQ3), Ursa Major (NQ2), Virgo (SQ3) are close. One end of (long) Hydra is near Virgo. Without names and coordinates checking proximity is impossible.
Apparently in each case of these 5, calcium atoms are moving rapidly toward the nebula, This is observed as a high redshift.
In the case of M31, the calcium atoms are moving toward the Milky Way, resulting in a blue shift.
Apparently there is a source of the alcium atoms observed moving toward each object in this sample.
Analysis of this set of 5 spectra:
1) there are vertical bars to indicate the same frequency location enabling a simple comparison.
2) there is an horizontal arrow below the spectrum to indicate the H&K position.
3) from top to bottom the H&K lines are moving more to the right, or lower frequency, or a redshift.
4) from top to bottom the left and right ends of the spectrum remain about the same.
The image quality is poor but definitely the left end is about the same and the right end is about the same.
5) from top to bottom the strongest intensities are roughly right of center for the first while maybe roughly left of center for the last (definitely not to the right for the last).
1) These absorption lines are from intervening atoms; all velocities are of the atoms not the object.
2) all the distances are wrong, based on only an atom in motion. These are mistakes.
3) Most important:
This single page refutes the claim for cosmological redshift!
From the Swinburne encyclopedia of astronomy (SAO):
Although cosmological redshift at first appears to be a similar effect to the more familiar Doppler shift, there is a distinction. In Doppler Shift, the wavelength of the emitted radiation depends on the motion of the object at the instant the photons are emitted. If the object is travelling towards us, the wavelength is shifted towards the blue end of the spectrum, if the object is travelling away from us, the wavelength is shifted towards the red end. In cosmological redshift, the wavelength at which the radiation is originally emitted is lengthened as it travels through (expanding) space. Cosmological redshift results from the expansion of space itself and not from the motion of an individual body.
The critical assumption is each wavelength is shifted to the right wnen the object is moving away.
That behavior is not observed.
With this cosmological redshift, the entire spectrum must shift. All of the left end should be gone while the right end should be intense, like the middle of the non-shifted spectrum.
From top to bottom the strongest intensities are roughly right of center for the first while roughly left of center for the last. The center of intensity should have moved to the right; it did not.
The two ends did not change. The only change is in the absorption lines.
This figure shows these high redshift galaxies do not exhibit the cosmological redshift caused by universe expansion.
The data refutes the claim.
The entire spectrum did not shift, only theabsorption lines shifted.
This is because velocities of the atoms changed.
Astronomy has made the mistake for roughly 100 years: an absorption line from an intervening atom cannot be the galaxy velocity.
The real Doppler Effect conserves energy. Cosmological redshift does not.
An object radiates in all directions. The energy transmitted in the direction of travel is increased because of the object's kinetic energy in that direction.
The energy transmitted in the direction opposite of travel in decreased because of the object's kinetic energy in the opposing direction. The energy increase in one direction is exactly balanced by the decrease in the other. Energy is always conserved at the moment of emission, even though an observer in either direction sees a red or blue shift.
The cosmological redshift proposes light while travellling through the fabric of space will increase its wavelengths which is a loss of energy.
This is blatantly a violation of thermodynamics, or impossible by physics.
Red and blue shifts occur only at the moment of emission but with no change in energy. They cannot occur at sny other time.
When galaxy spectrum data are revealed, I expect the following:
1) The Magellanic Clouds will have red shifted hydrogen obsorption lines, caused by these atoms moving away from the Milky Way. I expect the same for all Local Group galaxies with a red shift.
2) All galaxies outside our Local Group with a redshift will have red shifted calcium absorption lines.
Right now, (2) explains the galaxies with a redshift in available data.
After the relevation of galaxy spectrum data maybe another element is involved. There is no other data for this determination.
I do not expect hydrogen absorption lines in the data revealed for most distant galaxies.
I expect there are few if any neutral hydrogen atoms in the intergalactic medium (IGM), the space between galaxies for that absorption line.
The reason is the Lyman Limit.
The Lyman limit is the short-wavelength end of the hydrogen Lyman series, at 91.2 nm (912 A). It corresponds to the energy required for an electron in the hydrogen ground state to escape from the electric potential barrier that originally confined it, thus creating a hydrogen ion.
Creating a hydrogen ion is just the proton with a loose electron nearby.
The Lyman Limit is lower than the Lyman-alpha wavelength for an absorption line.
If a neutral hydrogen atom in space aborbs energy from a broad spectrum source, like a star, the Lyman Limit will be absorbed before the Lyman-alpha, with excess energy passed to the electron.
Therefore there will be no shift of an absorption line.
I expect the number of neutral hydrogen atoms will diminish by star light passing, unless the number is replenished.
4 odd revelations in this post:
a) The galaxy redshifts are never publicly assigned to calcium atoms moving in the IGM.
b) We don't know what is in the IGM. Only recently did a probe intrude the interstellar medium.
c) The Milky Way has hydrogen atoms flowing away.
d) There are fast calcium atoms in the IGM. The lack of data prevents knowing where.
With the revelation of galaxy spectrum data, cosmologists must recognize the atoms in the IGM and their effect on spectrum analysis. Maybe finally galaxies wil not get a wrong velocity from an intervening atom.
We will be able to monitor these conclusions.
That last sentence makes the data revelation unlikely.