Cosmology Views

Redefining Gravity References in the book dated October 13, 2020

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Table of Contents


Introduction . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . .  4


1 Basics of Light and Matter . . . . . . . 7

2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

3 New Atomic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

4 Mechanism for the Force . . . . . . . . 177

5 Newton’s Gravity Cases . . . . . . . .  199

6 Kepler’s Laws . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  219

7 Basics of Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . .  237

8 Space-time. . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

9 Gravitational Wave. . . . .  .  . . . . . . 252

10 Gravitational Lensing. . . . . . .  .  .  257

11 Black Hole . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . .  259

12 Neutron Star . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . .  268

13 Gravitational Precession .  .  . . . .  270

14 Dark Matter . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . .  272

15 Final Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . .  294

16 References . . . . . . . .  . . . .. .  299


<end of TOC; begin links to references. >

Each link begins with a page number in the book.


1 Basics of Light and Matter .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


8-url - Matter

-9-url - standard model

9-url - Edwin Kaal: The Proton-Electron Atom — A Proposal for a Structured Atomic Model | EU2017

-u12-url - Structured Atomic Model web site

14-url - dalton

15-url - electron

15-url - proton

15-url - neutrino

16-url - proton-to-electron mass ratio

16-url - carbon

22-url - Atomic Mass Unit Definition (AMU)

23-url - deuterium

24-url - carbon

28-url - neutrino

32- url - Neutron

47-url - antiproton

48-url - positron emission

48-url - particle pair production

50-YT - Planck's Constant and the Nature of Light

53-url - muon

54-url - Electron–positron annihilation

56-url - virtual photon

58-url - Mysterious 'fast radio burst' detected closer to Earth than ever before

60-pdf - Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter -  The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block"

61-YT - Sky Scholar channel

61-YT - The Sun is NOT a Gaseous Plasma! The LMH Solar Model!

61-url - Bravais lattices

64-url - Safire Project

68-url - Radioactive decay

70-YT - Why is the speed of light what it is? Maxwell equations visualized

70-url -  Maxwell's equations:

72-url - Superluminal motion

74-url - relativistic mass

57-YT - Why is the speed of light what it is? Maxwell equations visualized

57-url - Maxwell's equations

59-url - 3C 273

60-url - relativistic mass

2 Mass Defect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

78-url - Mass Defect

79-url - Nuclear binding energy

86-pdf - ZMass_Defect-Data.pdf

88-url - hydrogen

91-url - helium

102-url - lithium

104-url - Beryllium

105-url - Boron

107-url - carbon

109-url - nitrogen

110-url - Oxygen

111-url - Fluorine

2-url - Neon

114-url - magnesium

116-url - Chlorine

118-url - Argon

120-url - Nickel

122-url - copper

125-url - zinc

127-url - krypton

129-url - Rubidium

131-url - strontium

132-url - Technetium

134-url - Ruthenium

135-url - Praseodymium

136-url - Neodymium

138-url - Samarium

140-url - holmium


3 New Atomic Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

157-url - Proton-to-electron mass ratio

158-url - etherealmatters.org

162-url - nuclear binding energy

164-url - alpha particle

167-url - hydrogen isotopes

170-url - helium isotopes


4 Mechanism for the force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177

177-url - Isaac Newton quote

177-url - mass

177-url - james clerk maxwell

180-url - maxwell's equations

181-url - Cavendish experiment

184-url - electric field


5 Newton’s Gravity Cases . . . . .  199

199-url -  Newton's laws of motion

200-url - Newton's law of universal gravitation

203-url - free fall

204-url - gravitational acceleration

206-url - How do gravitational slingshots work?

209-url - Orbital Resonance

213-url - Earth's rotation

214-url - Venus; Its Curious Orbital Relationship to Earth

216-url - tide

217-url - earth tide

6 Kepler’s Laws . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . .   219

219-url - Kepler’s Laws

227-url - moons of Jupiter

227-url - moons of mars

227-url - Brittanica list of Saturn's moons

228-url - Wikipedia list of Saturn's moons
228url - moons of uranus
228-url -  moons of neptune

228-url - moons of pluto

229-pdf - ZSolarSystem Data-N3.pdf

230-url - lists of exoplanets

230-pdf - ZExoplanet-Data-N3.pdf

231-url - lists of exoplanets

232-url - Tidal Locking

233-url - Heavy Bombardment Period

7 Basics of Relativity  . . . . . . . 237

237-url - background independent

238-url - gravitational singularity

240-url - Gravitational Collapse


8 Space-time. . . . .  .  . . . . .    240

240-url - John Archibald Wheeler quotes

240-url - John Archibald Wheeler

244-url - Postulates of special relativity

247-url - spacetime

250-url- NASA image is now missing. this is an alternate source

9 Gravitational Wave. . . . .  .  . . . . .    253

255-url - LIGO

259-pdf - ligo-events4table.pdf

10 Gravitational Lensing. . . . . . .  .  . . . . .    257

261-YT - “Can Stars BEND LIGHT? General Relativity and Gravity with Dr. Edward Dowdye!”

11 Black Hole . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  22

262-YT - Thornhill: Black Hole or Plasmoid? | Space News

262-url - plasmoid

263-url - Black Hole

265-url - Astronomers saw a star dancing around a black hole. And it proves Einstein's theory was right

263-url - S2

12 Neutron Star . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  265

265-url - Neutron star

265-YT - The Invention of the Neutron Star | Space News

13 Gravitational Precession .  .  . . . . .    270

270-url - Precession

271-pdf - Explanation of the Perihelion Motion of Mercury in Terms of a Velocity-Dependent Correction to Newton’s Law of Gravitation


14 Dark Matter . . . . .  .  . . . . . . . . . . . . 272

273-url - Fritz Zwicky

274-url - dark matter

275-pdf - Birkelund Currents and Dark Matter

276-pdf - M31's Odd Rotation Curve

278-url - Twisted magnetic field in galaxy IC 342

279-url IC 342 original NOAO link and second link are missing

279-url - IC 342

281-url - Hoag's Object

282-url - Cartwheel Galaxy

282-url - AM 0644-741 or Lindsay-Shapley Ring

283-url - RXJ1131-1231

183-url - SDSS J0146-0929

283-url - Abell 2261
283-url - Abell 383

283-url - Abell S1063

283-url - Abell 1413

283-url - Abell 2218

283-url - Abell 1689

283-url - Abell 2261

283-url - Abell 2390

283-url - Abell 2667

283-url - Abell 370

284-url - SDSS J1004+4112 

284-url - SDP.81

284-url - LRG 3-757

284-url - RCS2 032727-132623

285-url - Abell 2261

285-url -  J1531+3414

285- url - CL0024+17

285-url - CL0024+17  from HST

286-url - SDSS J103842.59+484917.7

288-url - Laniakeia

15 Final Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . .  294

last change 10/21/2020