Cosmology Views

Measuring Galaxies Book

David Michalets self-published a book , titled Measuring Galaxies, with 2 formats,  6x9 paperback and Kindle.

Both versions having the same content were written using the Kindle tools so Amazon handles their distribution by print on demand.
 The format is like an outline to present a methodical justification for all conclusions.

The book's details on Amazon:

Measuring  Galaxies analyzes the public data of over 600 galaxies.

Each galaxy has measurements to obtain its position and magnitude. When possible, its light is also measured as a spectrum, in one or more bands of wavelengths. For many years, the change in a wavelength position was measured using spectroscopy.  The change, often called a redshift, was assumed to be caused by the Doppler Effect. A redshift has been used to calculate a velocity and distance, based on certain assumptions.
In 1923, Hubble confirmed the first galaxy being outside our Milky Way by measuring the distance to a Cepheid, or a specific type of variable star. Before that event, distant nebulae could be either inside or beyond our Milky Way because their distances were unknown.

In recent decades, sky surveys have captured images of many galaxies.This quantity of images resulted in using other methods of data analysis based on luminosity. These methods do not rely on only specific wavelengths in a spectrum to derive a galaxy’s velocity and to then derive its distance. Each method has important assumptions for its calculation.

Measurements of galaxies have been made for about 100 years. Several crucial assumptions affect the conclusions being drawn from the raw data. Those assumptions are crucial and must be reconsidered in light of the historical data and the nuances of the Doppler effect.

There are more galaxies in the universe than the 600+ but the others would not affect the conclusions based on this diverse set of glaxies. Among the conclusions:

a) the best procedure  for measuring a galaxy red shift is clear;
b) the best procedure  for measuring a galaxy velocity are clear;

c) the relevance of Hubble's Law is clear;
d) many galaxy data must be fixed after using the correct procedure for their values;

All the distant galaxies having Cepheids are analyzed using data from the Nasa/IPAC Extragalactic Database.
The respective redshift measurement techniques are reviewed.
The respective distance calculation techniques based on luminosity are reviewed.

Currently, there is no standard procedure for measuring a galaxy and interpreting its spectrum. Lacking such a procedure can lead to either inconsistent results or mistakes. One example is a blue shift, which can lead to a negative galaxy velocity.

One important observation is redshifts assume only motion in the line of sight. It is impossible for the Doppler effect to indicate transverse motion. It can be a mistake to assume the object has none. We do not ignore the width of a near object whose edges can be beyond our line of sight.
 The theory of a big bang event arose when galaxy measurements were assumed to provide a correct velocity of a galaxy. The  proposed big bang series of events is discussed in light of these conclusions.

With this solution, a clearer picture of the universe is revealed, regarding motions and distances of both galaxies and quasars, including those not in the set or not yet measured.

The research created an archive of data from each galaxy, to enable charts of certain values, and to support the conclusions.

The final revision of the book was on 04/23/2021.
created - April, 2021
last change - 04/25/2021