Cosmology View

My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Review of Cosmos Without Gravitation

Section MC

MC. My Conclusion

Cosmos without Gravitation presents Velikovsky's disagreements with cosmology at that time, 1946.
 It was written while Worlds in Collision was being published.

He realized that electrical events were important in the solar system.

The earlier acceptance of relativity by physics and cosmology had severe consequences for both sciences.

Einstein proposed only gravity affected motion. However, instead of using Newton's force, he proposed a concept of space-time where a non-inertial observer had their path curved by a gravitational field. As a result, gravity was only an illusion which affected only this special observer and not another mass. This completely ignored electromagnetism, which must participate when this special observer has an electrical charge.

Relativity is a background independent theory. Its behaviors are confined to the observer's reference frame. Anything observed is relative to this observer's current position.

Space-time is simply the current motion of this moving observer using 4 linear values, like in Euclidean geometry.

They are
1. change in x position
2. change in y,
3. change in z.
4. change in time but multiplied by c to get units of length.

The tensor equations change these values for each time increment.

This observer is like being in a game-type simulation. Despite the real gravity being a mutal force acting on 2 masses instantaneously. this observer has no effect on another mass

Within this illusion of relativity, cosmology tries to explains everything by gravity.

Velikovsky quotes Einstein and seems to agree the osmology of 1946 treats gravity as the only important force.

Velikovsky documents many cases where gravity alone is wrong.

In some cases he was right, but in other cases, he was wrong.

Despite lacking a thorough understanding of physics, he proposed  2 significant changes to physics.

1. He proposed gravity arose from a new atomic model where the nucleus could separate from its concentric electron shells, so a neutral atom could become bipolar. This bipolar behavior was offered as gravity at the atomic level.  Perhaps, this could explain gravity at a small scale. However, it fails on the scale of the solar system.

All of the orbits in the solar system are ellipses, because all bodies move around their system's center of gravity (COG), which is dynamic, so there is no symmetry. Even the Sun wobbles around this point.

This COG behavior applies to planets, asteroids, and comets around the Sun, exoplanets around other stars, and moons around their planet.

2. He proposed, without adequate explanation, that electromagnetism could explain what he called perturbations of these orbits.

The electric force can cause constant radius, circular orbits of electrons around a nucleus.
The Lorerentz force from a magnetic field causes tangential motion, which would be circular orbits.

Neither the electric force nor the Lorentz force can cause elliptical orbits.

Our study of the cosmos requires both gravity and electromagnetism.

Attempts to restrict cosmology to only one of the two must fail, simply because both are present and must be accounted for when seeking an explanation for an observation.

Dark matter is a mistake from ignoring a magnetic field..

There are 2 fundamental particles, electron and proton.

Proton has 1836 times more mass.
Proton has positive charge while electron is negative.

Electric force is 10^39 times stronger than the force of gravity.

Electric force acts only between charges, while gravity acts between masses.

Both forces are instantaneous, but diminish by inverse-square of distance.

The action by the Lorentz force is also instantaneous.

Both the fundamental particles and fundamental forces are disparate.

It is futile to propose that there is only one force for the cosmos.

Maxwell and others defined the forces of electromagnetism.

These forces had no defined scope.

Cosmology as a science did not arise until after Einstein's wrong conclusions were accepted by physicists.

The first galactic redshift was measured in 1912.

The 1919 Eddington experiment enabled Einstein to attain celebrity status.

 In 1923, Hubble measured the first galaxy, M31, having its distance beyond the Milky Way.

After Einstein, cosmology failed with only gravity.

Velikovsky failed with only electromagnetism.

It is wrong to ignore the inherent dichotomy of the universe.

This is not duality where 1 thing can be seen as 2. The reality is there are 2.
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last change 04/20/2022