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Book by David Michalets

Progress of Metaphysics

2 Classical Phase of Metaphysics

I loosely define classical as before Einstein.

Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell lived before Einstein.

2.1 Isaac Newton

By defining the initial foundation of physics, Isaac Newton defined what could be called classical physics, because the subsequent foundation, after the acceptance of relativity,  could be called modern physics.

According to Newton, absolute time exists independently of any perceiver and progresses at a consistent pace throughout the universe.

Absolute space, in its own nature, without regard to anything external, remains always similar and immovable. Relative space is some movable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces; which our senses determine by its position to bodies: and which is vulgarly taken for immovable space ... Absolute motion is the translation of a body from one absolute place into another: and relative motion, the translation from one relative place into another ..
— Isaac Newton



In my words, absolute space is the background, has no features, and remains always immovable.

In my words, the universe has no defined limits and it has much stuff in this space.

After Newton, physicists understood absolute time and absolute space. They exist independently of any observer.

Most are aware of Euclidean geometry with its definitions of a plane, line, parallel, and point.

Most are also aware of the Cartesian coordinate system, where the point of origin defines the direction of increasing values in each axis (x,y,z).

In physics, a reference point in absolute space is identified for the origin of the coordinate system, so the measurements using the defined axis dimensions are relative to the reference point, not to the observer. Another observer can use the same reference point to share measurements, when using the same dimensions.

An observer is not limited to Cartesian coordinates.

The center of the Earth serves as the reference point for multiple coordinate systems. Among them is the geographic coordinate system, whose 2 angular dimensions are latitude and longitude. The Global Positioning system (GPS), using an array of satellites, adds a linear dimension for the observer's altitude.

Another is the celestial coordinate system, whose 2 angular dimensions are right ascension and declination. When using this system, the observer accounts for their position on the surface relative to the center so celestial measurements from different surface locations match.

These coordinate systems when using a common reference point enable measurements independent of the observer.

When using a common coordinate system and reference point, we can measure the location of any object or event and the time of each measurement to calculate its velocity and acceleration. Sometimes, many position measurements from different locations enable a distance calculation by parallax. This technique for a distance is used in our solar system and in our Milky Way.

2.1 Newton's Laws of motion

Isaac Newton defined 3 laws of motion. They are different than Kepler's laws of planetary motion.

Isaac Newton defined his 3 laws of motion, and his law of universal gravitation.

His 3 laws are:

1. law of inertia.

2. relationship of force and acceleration of a mass

3. force and opposing reaction

Here is the standard explanation of Newton's laws of motion. from a reference:

In an inertial frame of reference, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force.

In an inertial frame of reference, the vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration a of the object: F = ma. (It is assumed here that the mass m is constant.)

When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.

Some also describe a fourth law which states that forces add up like vectors, that is, that forces obey the principle of superposition.

(Excerpt end)

Here is an observation.

Newton gave credit to Galileo for describing inertia first.

2.2 Law of universal gravitation

Isaac Newton defined the law of universal gravitation.
Space-time will be compared to Newton's law.

Newton's law of universal gravitation is usually stated as that every particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers. The publication of the theory has become known as the "first great unification", as it marked the unification of the previously described phenomena of gravity on Earth with known astronomical behaviors.
This is a general physical law derived from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called inductive reasoning. It is a part of classical mechanics and was formulated in Newton's work PhilosophiƦ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("the Principia"), first published on 5 July 1687. In today's language, the law states that every point mass attracts every other point mass by a force acting along the line intersecting the two points. The force is proportional to the product of the two masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The equation for universal gravitation thus takes the form:

F = G * (m1 * m2) / r^2

where F is the gravitational force acting between two objects, m1 and m2 are the masses of the 2 objects, r is the distance between the centers of their masses, and G is the gravitational constant.

(beware this next paragraph. My observation follows the end of this excerpt and its reference.)

Newton's law has since been superseded by Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, but it continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity in most applications. Relativity is required only when there is a need for extreme accuracy, or when dealing with very strong gravitational fields, such as those found near extremely massive and dense objects, or at small distances (such as Mercury's orbit around the Sun).

(end excerpt)



That claim of Newton being superseded by Einstein is a blatant mistake.

The claim that relativity is required only for "extremely massive and dense objects" suggests a black hole.This enity  exists only in the theory of special relativity, and its confusion with gravity.
A black hole does not really exist.  A black hole is a mistake by Einstein.

Newton's law cannot apply to fictional objects, like a black hole..

2.3 James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell was a Scottish mathematician and scientist responsible for the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, which was the first theory to describe electricity, magnetism and light as different manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics" where the first one had been realised by Isaac Newton.

With the publication of "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" in 1865, Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light. He proposed that light is an undulation in the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The unification of light and electrical phenomena led his prediction of the existence of radio waves. Maxwell is also regarded as a founder of the modern field of electrical engineering.


Here is an observation.

The word undulation is just wrong.  It implies the medium is moving up and down.

Maxwell proposed that light is the oscillation of synchronized electric and magnetic fields.

Maxwell defined 2 parameter for a vacuum, vacuum permittivity and vacuum permeability.

When the current medium is not a vacuum, then it is less permissive and less permeable.

Light does not require an up and down motion as implied in the excerpt.

A collapsing electrical field creates a magnetic field; a collapsing magnetic field creates an electric field.

There is no up and down motion of anything, while these synchronized fields propagate.

2.4 Progress of Metaphysics in the Classical Phase

Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, and others correctly described the fundamental forces (gravity and electromagnetism) as instantantaneous, and known to diminish by inverse-square of distance.

The universe did not possess any inherent behaviors in space.

Maxwell defined paraters for a vacuum, or empty space.

Time was observer independent.

The use of a universal time, independent of all observers,  and maintained by an atomic clock, began in 1984, with the creation of UTC, or Coordinated Universal Time.

Newton and Clark  provided advances from the ancient phase of metaphysics.

2.5 Observation on progress during classical phase

When reading the Wikipedia topic for an electric field, nearly every paragraph notes the similarity to gravity and its force.

I proposed a very simple mechanism for gravity, based on Maxwell's field from a charge around every proton and electron.

Maxwell defined a field being deployed for its charge.

I defined a field being deployed for its mass.

Just as the electron and proton have a field for their charge (this electric field was defined by Maxwell), they have a separate field for their mass.

Nature seems to prefer simple. This is certainly simple.

I cannot explain why no one else offered this simple mechanism.

I suspect any of these could be why.

Newton was an icon and should not be doubted in any way,

b) Maxwell defined behaviors beyond just a force.  Those distractions could obscure the obvious similarity

For example, a collapsing electric field creates a magnetic field,  and a collapsing electric field creates a magnetic field.

Lorentz added a tangential force on a moving charge in a magnetic field.

The force of gravity has none of these extra behaviors.

c) Newton's force equation was simple; Maxwell provided differential equations for the more complex behaviors of electromagnetism.

After 1905, the icon changed.  No one should question Einstein, so after everyone believed relativity  had uperseded Newton, then Newton and his force became irrelevant.

After I solved how LIGO fooled everyone about non-existent gravitational waves, I pursued a mechanism for Newton's real force.

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last change 05/28/2022