**Cosmology View**

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`Books by David Michalets`

I propose a theory using a gravity field around a particle having mass, just like there is an electric field around a particle having charge

Isaac Newton (178 years earlier than Maxwell) could not know how an electric field works so he could not propose a field as the basis of his force between masses.

6.1 Finding a mechanism for the force of gravity.

This processbegins with understanding Maxwell's equations and an electric field and the effect of the medium or free space..

A YouTube video about Maxwell's equations, below, offers a reader a visual presentation accompanied by a narration. This video could supplement later references to electric fields in this theory involving mass and gravity.

Its title:

Why is the speed of light what it is? Maxwell equations visualized

Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSEJ4YLXtt8

At about 3 minutes he describes a charge will have an electric field emanating from it. The medium or free space can resist the creation of this field.

He mentions the vacuum permitivity where the vacuum of free space has some resistance to the creation of this field.

A gravity field around a mass must have the same behavior.

Unfortunately, one must ignore the last couple minutes of the 13 minute video. At about 11:30 minutes, he finishes with an irrelevant reference to Relativity, which has absolutely nothing to do with Maxwell's equations.

My theory proposes gravity is a separate attractive force but just like the electric force in some ways.

Everyone knows the 2 inverse-square forces are similar in their equation format, but there is a notable difference between them, that gravity is much weaker.

When there are 2 similar mutual forces with similar behaviors, but one is much weaker, then probably each force is uniquely affected by the medium.

6.2 Defining a Mechanism for Force of Gravity

Newton did not propose a mechanism for mass to drive its force of gravity.

I propose the instantaneous force of gravity is the result of a mass field around every proton and electron.

Both particles already have an accepted electric field.

Both particles and atoms behave as expected for combinations of charges.

The 2 fields around both fundamental particles are different though the resulting mutual force affects both participants similarly.

The electric field is either attractive or repulsive while the gravity field is only attractive.

This simple assumption means all of Maxwell's equations for a static electric field and its mutual force also apply to this static gravity field and its mutual force.

Gravity is not electrical so permittivity for a capacitance in free space does not apply.

For gravity, open space is just a "resistance" to the force. That word is used in the definition of mass. The distributed free space resistance for this particular force explains why the force of gravity is so different between the masses of proton and electron compared to the force between their charges.

This new gravity field is NOT the accepted gravitational field around a sphere of uniform density causing free fall acceleration to smaller bodies near its surface.

Calling it a gravity field compared to an electric field is appropriate when one applies Maxwell's field equations.

The following is the Wikipedia description of an electric field but mixed with changes for an application to a gravity field highlighted.

I hope this from/to approach for changing a description from an electric field to a gravity field is clear. The exercise should reveal their similar behavior, to support this hypothesis.

1 From:

An electric field (sometimes E-field is the physical field that surrounds each electric charge and exerts force on all other charges in the field, either attracting or repelling them. Electric fields originate from electric charges, or from time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces (or interactions) of nature.

1 To:

A gravity field (sometimes G-field is the physical field that surrounds each mass and exerts force on all other masses in the field, attracting them. Gravity fields originate from masses. Gravity fields are manifestations of one of the four fundamental forces (or interactions) of nature.

G-field is used, not M-field, to avoid confusion with a magnetic field.

2 From:

The electric field is defined mathematically as a vector field that associates to each point in space the (electrostatic or Coulomb) force per unit of charge exerted on an infinitesimal positive test charge at rest at that point.The derived SI units for the electric field are volts per meter (V/m), exactly equivalent to newtons per coulomb (N/C).

2 To:

The gravity field is defined mathematically as a vector field that associates to each point in space the (force per unit of kg exerted on an infinitesimal positive test mass at rest at that point.The derived SI units for the gravity field are N per meter (N/m), exactly equivalent to newtons per kg (N/kg).

Image and caption (3) from Wikipedia Electric Field: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_field

2-to image

3 From:

Electric field of a positive point charge suspended over an infinite sheet of conducting material. The field is depicted by electric field lines, lines which follow the direction of the electric field in space.

3 To:

Gravity field of a point mass suspended over an infinite span of gravity conducting medium. The field is depicted by gravity field lines, lines which follow the direction of the gravity field in space.

4 From:

The electric field is defined at each point in space as the force (per unit charge) that would be experienced by a vanishingly small positive test charge if held at that point. As the electric field is defined in terms of force, and force is a vector (i.e. having both magnitude and direction), it follows that an electric field is a vector field. Vector fields of this form are sometimes referred to as force fields. The electric field acts between two charges similarly to the way the gravitational field acts between two masses, as they both obey an inverse-square law with distance.

4 To:

The gravity field is defined at each point in space as the force (per unit mass) that would be experienced by a vanishingly small positive test mass if held at that point. As the gravity field is defined in terms of force, and force is a vector (i.e. having both magnitude and direction), it follows that a gravity field is a vector field. Vector fields of this form are sometimes referred to as force fields. The gravity field acts between two masses similarly to the way the gravitational field acts between two masses, as they both obey an inverse-square law with distance. This is the basis for Newton's law, which states that, for stationary masses, the gravity field varies with the source mass and varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source. This means that if the source mass were doubled, the electric field would double, and if you move twice as far away from the source, the field at that point would be only one-quarter its original strength.

5 From:

This is the basis for Coulomb's law, which states that, for stationary charges, the electric field varies with the source charge and varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source. This means that if the source charge were doubled, the electric field would double, and if you move twice as far away from the source, the field at that point would be only one-quarter its original strength.

5 To:

This is the basis for Newton's law, which states that, for stationary masses, the gravity field varies with the source charge and varies inversely with the square of the distance from the source. This means that if the source mass were doubled, the gravity field would double, and if you move twice as far away from the source, the field at that point would be only one-quarter its original strength.

6 From:

The electric field can be visualized with a set of lines whose direction at each point is the same as the field's, a concept introduced by Michael Faraday, whose term 'lines of force' is still sometimes used. This illustration has the useful property that the field's strength is proportional to the density of the lines. The field lines are the paths that a point positive charge would follow as it is forced to move within the field, similar to trajectories that masses follow within a gravitational field.

6 To:

The gravity field can be visualized with a set of lines whose direction at each point is the same as the field's, a concept introduced by Michael Faraday, whose term 'lines of force' is still sometimes used. This illustration has the useful property that the field's strength is proportional to the density of the lines. The field lines are the paths that a point mass would follow as it is forced to move within the field, similar to trajectories that masses follow within a gravitational field. Field lines due to stationary masses have several important properties, including always originating from point masses and terminating at other masses, they enter all masses at right angles, and they never cross or close in on themselves. The field lines are a representative concept; the field actually permeates all the intervening space between the lines. More or fewer lines may be drawn depending on the precision to which it is desired to represent the field.

7 From:

Field lines due to stationary charges have several important properties, including always originating from positive charges and terminating at negative charges, they enter all good conductors at right angles, and they never cross or close in on themselves. The field lines are a representative concept; the field actually permeates all the intervening space between the lines. More or fewer lines may be drawn depending on the precision to which it is desired to represent the field.

7 To:

Field lines due to stationary masses have several important properties, including always originating from masses and they never cross or close in on themselves. The field lines are a representative concept; the field actually permeates all the intervening space between the lines. More or fewer lines may be drawn depending on the precision to which it is desired to represent the field.

8 From:

E(x0) = F / q0 .= q1 / (x1-x0)^2 . .

This is the electric field at point x0 due to the point charge q1; it is a vector-valued function equal to the Coulomb force per unit charge that a positive point charge would experience at the position x0. Since this formula gives the electric field magnitude and direction at any point x0 in space (except at the location of the charge itself,x1, where it becomes infinite) it defines a vector field. From the above formula it can be seen that the electric field due to a point charge is everywhere directed away from the charge if it is positive, and toward the charge if it is negative, and its magnitude decreases with the inverse square of the distance from the charge.

The Coulomb force on a charge of magnitude q at any point in space is equal to the product of the charge and the electric field at that point

F = qE

8 To:

G(x0) = F / m0 = m1 / (x1-x0)^2 . . .

This is the gravity field at point x0 due to the point mass m1; it is a vector-valued function equal to the gravity force per unit mass that a point mass would experience at the position x0. Since this formula gives the gravity field magnitude and direction at any point x0 in space (except at the location of the mass itself, x1, where it becomes infinite) it defines a vector field. From the above formula it can be seen that the gravity field due to a point mass is everywhere directed away from the mass, and its magnitude decreases with the inverse square of the distance from the mass.

The gravity force on a charge of magnitude q at any point in space is equal to the product of the mass and the electric field at that point

End of the from/to sequence of 8 steps.

Observation:

The Wikipedia descriptions of an electric field behavior frequently have a reference to a similar behavior in gravity.

In some cases, the "To" text needed no change because gravity was already there.

A description of an electric field includes a paragraph statements like:

Coulomb's law, which describes the interaction of electric charges: is similar to Newton's law of universal gravitation:

This suggests similarities between the electric field E and the gravitational field g, or their associated potentials. Mass is sometimes called "gravitational charge".

Electrostatic and gravitational forces both are central, conservative and obey an inverse-square law.

Each charge field is diminishing with distance. Their mutual interaction results in a mutual force.

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_field

Observation:

A gravity field from a mass behaves the same with another mass like a pair of charges. The difference is an electric field has polarity and interacts only with other electric fields, or with a magnetic field.

A gravity field interacts with only another gravity field, and is not affected by an electric or magnetic field.

The force of gravity, between the pervasive gravity fields of its participants, is instantaneous and does not require time to propagate.

Gravity field is also simpler. Collapsing electric and magnetic fields create the other.

No matter what happens to a mass, the event cannot create an electric or magnetic field.

The universe has pervasive charge fields and gravity fields, with "lines" to describe both their origin and relative strength.

This theory does not change Newton's force of gravity equation, which has been verified numerous times. It only tries to explain its mechanism in matter.

Relativity broke Newton's valid application of the force of gravity.

Relativity must be dropped by physics because Newton's force

remains valid. Wikipedia in its gravity-related topics, claims relativity and space-time superseded Newton's force, which is such an incredible mistake, which I tried to explain in several of my publications.

Gravity has complex behaviors like orbital resonances.

This theory is seeking a mechanism for gravity in matter, not explaining the peculiar behaviors of gravity.

last change 03/21/2022