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Books by David Michalets

Distant Spectral Shifts

8 Galaxies with Cepheids

This is section 8 of 18.

The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.

The use of Cepheid variable stars was mentioned in previous sections. They are covered in more detail here.

Cepheids are crucial to cosmology as the most reliable mechanism for getting a galaxy's distance.

Light has a well-known behavior of dimming by distance.

If a known light source is observed in a distant galaxy, then its distance can be calculated using the measured reduction in the light intensity.

Several types of variable stars have been identified, where the combination of a maximum magnitude, a minimum magnitude, and the time between the 2 peaks follow a consistent pattern.
A Cepheid variable is a candidate for that application.

Cepheids have served another, crucial role in cosmology.

When its galaxy has its distance calculated, this exercise gets the red shift velocity associated with a distance, which are the units of Hubble's constant.

The Cepheid enables the measurement of the claimed relationship between a redshift velocity and the object's distance. The Cepheid provides a distance from Earth. The velocity is a separate measurement.

Unfortunately for cosmology, only 17 galaxies beyond our Local Group have been found containing Cepheids.
Despite this relatively low number among the 1000's of galaxies, their distribution and their data obtained by current methods enabled many important conclusions about these:

a)  The method of measuring a redshift velocity,

b) The method of measuring a distance to a galaxy having a Cepheid,

c)  The publication of those values,

d) The assumed consistency of the universe expansion as presented by Hubble's constant.
By its very name, cosmologists expect Hubble's constant to describe the uniform expansion of the universe where a redshift velocity from any object in the universe is directly related to a distance using a single constant value. That directly implies an unjustified assumption of a uniform expansion of the universe. Unfortunately for that assumption, all galaxies have their velocity measured incorrectly. They are measured like a star, but their spectra are too different making this method a mistake.

Here is my list of the 17 galaxies with Cepheids beyond our Local Group:
The 17 are not in a uniform distribution around the sky, beyond our Local Group and our Milky Way.

Click on the link to view the list.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/List-17.png


Those too close, or are in the Local Group, are excluded. Edwin Hubble declared: the Local Group is an island separate from the Hubble Flow, so I expect Hubble's law and constant do not apply within the Local Group. The galaxies having Cepheids are found in 6 of the 8 sky quadrants.
Some are somewhat close to another in the same constellation. Several are in the Virgo galaxy cluster, which spans several quadrants.

A description of each galaxy's measurements will follow.

Many spectra are presented here with the final public values derived from them, including important statements in NED which must be noted when affecting how the values should be treated.

8.1 NGC 2403

NGC 2403 is also known as Caldwell 7, and is in the constellation Camelopardalis, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_2403

From NED Redshifts (37):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00044, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 133 km/sec

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 3.99 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.000608 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 132 km/s
The V result difference of 1 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 1.932153 Mpc
The D result is about half from NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 131 km/s
D = 2.96 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

4) Any reference to the CMB is alarming because there is no CMB, only noise from Earth's oceans which was mistaken for the hypothetical CMB.

From NED Distances (65):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC2403-spectra/NED-NGC2403-Dist.png

There are 7 results for Method Cepheids

Their average = 3.1557143

There are 7 results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The average of the 14 =  3.1635714

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (37):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, UV band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC2403-spectra/NED-NGC2403-UV.png

Image 2, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC2403-spectra/NED-NGC2403-HI.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region. This image was not in the book.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC2403-spectra/NED-NGC2403-OPT.png

Observations:

Image 1)

Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in UV band. It appears close to 1216 A, so the proton was not moving fast at the moment of electron capture.

This event detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Image 2)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is a number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity and wavelength intensity as shown.
It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

The peak to the left is probably around 131, the stated velocity. The peak to the right is probably around 220.

Neither of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

(image 3)

There are several absorption lines. If any of them were used to calculate the redshift velocity of this galaxy, behind these atoms in the line of sight, the velocity is invalid.

NGC 2403 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 2403 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.


It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.2 NGC 3351

NGC 3351 is also known as M95, and is in the constellation Leo, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_95


From NED Redshifts (35):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00260, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 778 ± 4 km/s km/sec

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) 9.20 ± 0.66 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

[Redshift  0.003758 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 780 km/s
The V result difference of 2 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 11.50442 Mpc
The D result is about 10% higher than NED
3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 778 km/s
D = 10 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (62):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3351-spectra/NED-NGC3351-dist.png

There are 20 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 9.9255

There are over 20 results from other methods (could not fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (30):

The relevant images are provided:

Image 1, UV band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3351-spectra/NED-NGC3351-UV.png


Image 2, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3351-spectra/NED-NGC3351-HI.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3351-spectra/NED-NGC3351-OPT-1.png

Image 4, Optical band, from Integrated-Drift Scan region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3351-spectra/NED-NGC3351-OPT-2.png

Observations:

Image 1)

Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in UV band. It appears close to 1216 A so the proton was not moving fast at the moment of electron capture.

This event detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Image 2)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is some number of emission lines around 21 cm. There was a strong line at exactly 21 cm, so its z=0, implying 0 velocity. Each other line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next,  each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocities with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having a mix of differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity. The strong non-shifted line was ignored so the weaker, shifted lines could provide a non-zero velocity, when a measurement of zero velocity could be justified for this galaxy based on the H I lines.

The claimed velocity of 778 is apparently from the much weaker emission lines which had a shift.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.
It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

Images 3 and 4)

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and it seems to be captured by both samples. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to ground state, resulting in no significant shift of the line.

NGC 3351 has an unjustified non-zero velocity. The correct value is the statement: there has been no attempt to measure this galaxy's proper 3-D velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 3351 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances from multiple Cepheids. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 20 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.
NGC 3351 has a wrong velocity.


It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.3 NGC 3368

NGC 3368 is also known as M96, and is in the constellation Leo, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_96

From NED Redshifts (28):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00299, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 897 ± 4 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 10.98 ± 0.78 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

[Redshift 0.004156 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 897 km/s
The V result matches NED.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 13.23009 Mpc
The D result is about 20% higher than NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 897 km/s
D = 9.6 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (71):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3368-spectra/NED-NGC3368-dist.png


There are 21 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture)

Their average = 11.022857

There are more than 20 results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The distance provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (13):

Here are the relevant images:

Image 1, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3368-spectra/NED-NGC3368-HI-1.png


Image 2, Optical band, from Integrated-Drift Scan region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3368-spectra/NED-NGC3368-OPT-2.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3368-spectra/NED-NGC3368-OPT-3.png

Image 4, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3368-spectra/NED-NGC3368-HI-4.png

There are more H I spectra in NED than presented here.

Observations:
Image 1)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

The image is noteworthy because the strong velocity at zero means there is a strong non-shifted 21 cm line. As that must be the strongest line in the hidden spectrum, a zero velocity for this galaxy could be justified. Instead, the claimed velocity apparently was found in the weaker lines which were red shifted.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 3368 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 3368 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible distances coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 21 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 3368 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.4 NGC 3198

NGC 3198 is also known as Herschel 146, and is in the constellation Ursa Major, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_3198

From NED Redshifts (27):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00220, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 660 km/sec

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 10.02 ± 0.70 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.002933 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 660 km/s
The V result matches NED
2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 9.734513 Mpc
The D result is about 3% below D from NED
3)
 From Wikipedia:
Z = 0.00227 or V = 681 km/s
D = 14.4172 Mpc

Wikipedia V and D differ from NED

From NED Distances (52):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-dist.png

There are 21 distance results for Method Cepheids

Their average = 14.67619 Mpc

There are over 10 results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not from just this set.

From NED Spectra (25):

Here are the relevant images:

Image 1, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-OPT-1.png

Image 2, Optical band, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-OPT-2.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-OPT-3.png


Image 4, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-HI-1.png

Image 5, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-HI-2.png

Image 6, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-HI-3.png

Image 7,  O I line, from nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3198-spectra/NED-NGC198-OI-line.png

There are also spectrum captures of O III line, and C II line.
All metallic lines must be ignored, as none can be related to the galaxy's real velocity.

Observations:

Images 1-3)

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and seems to be captured by these samples. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to its ground state, resulting in no shift of the line.

This line's detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Images 4-6)

There is no spectrum provided for each plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of a velocity with a wavelength intensity as shown.

Neither of these H I peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

The peak in image 4 was probably used for the galaxy velocity, not from images 5 and 6.

NED never explicitly identifies the spectrum used for the velocity value.

Image 7 reveals checking for metallic lines, including oxygen and carbon.

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 3198 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.
NGC 3198 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances from multiple Cepheids. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 7 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 3198 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy, when both numerator and denominator are lists of values.

8.5 NGC 4321

NGC 4321 is also known as M100, and is in the constellation Como Berenices, in sky quadrant NQ3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_100

From NED Redshifts (40):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00524, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 1571 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 21.80 ± 1.53 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]
[Redshift 0.006325 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 1572 km/s
The V result difference of 1 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 23.18584 Mpc
The D result is about 6% higher than NED
3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 1571 km/s
D =16.8712 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (70):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-dist-fit.png


There are 25 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture)


Their average = 16.016

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (32):

Here are the relevant images:

Image 1, UV band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-UV.png

Image 2, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-HI-1.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region.


https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-OPT-1.png

Image 4, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-OPT-2.png


Image 5, H I, from integrated  region.
region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-HI-2.png

Image 6, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4321-spectra/NED-NGC4321-HI-3.png
Observations:

Image 1)

Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in UV band. It appears close to 1216 A so it was not moving fast at the moment of electron capture.

This event detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Images 2, 5, 6)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is a number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

The strongest peak was at z = 0. A zero velocity is justified for this galaxy. However weaker lines were used to claim a non-zero velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4321 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 4321 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 7 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 4321 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.6 NGC 4548

NGC 4548 is also known as M91, and is in the constellation Leo, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_91

From NED Redshifts (22):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00162, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 486 ± 4 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 5.82 ± 0.42 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.002695 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 486 km/s
The V result matches NED

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 = 7.168142 Mpc
The D result is 23% higher than NED
3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 486 km/s
D = 19 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (42):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC548-spectra/NED-NGC4548-dist.png


There are 21 results for Method Cepheids

Their average = 15.584211

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.
From NED Spectra (8):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC548-spectra/NED-NGC4548-OPT-1.png

Image 2, H I, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC548-spectra/NED-NGC4548-HI-2.png

Image 3, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC548-spectra/NED-NGC4548HI-3.png

Image 4, Optical band, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC548-spectra/NED-NGC4548-OPT-4.png

Observations:

Image 1)

There are some absorption and emission lines but are inconsistent, making a selection unjustified.

Images 2, 3)

There is no spectrum provided for the plots of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is some  number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.
It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

The tiny peak is probably around 486, the stated velocity. Its low intensity justifies its validity for consideration.

Neither of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

Image 4)

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and seems to be slightly blue shifted. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to ground state, and its motion toward the observer resulted in a blue shift of the line. Blue shifts are rare and this possible measurement of one was not used, for this galaxy. Regardless of its shift, the line indicates nothing of the galaxy.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4548 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight.
The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 4548 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 21 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 4548 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.7 NGC 4725

NGC 4725 is in the constellation Leo, in sky quadrant NQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_4725

From NED Redshifts (28):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00402, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 1206 ± 3 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 17.34 ± 1.21 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.004966 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from uncorrected Z and c is 1206 km/s
The V result is the same as NED.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 17.78761 Mpc
The D result is about 2% higher than NED
3)

 From Wikipedia:
V = 1206 km/s
D = 12.3 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ BY about 40%

From NED Distances (48):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4725-spectra/NED-NGC4725-dist.png


There are 17 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 13.141176

There are more than 10 results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.
Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (29):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4725-spectra/NED-NGC4725-HI-1.png

Image 2, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4725-spectra/NED-NGC4725-OPT-2.png


Image 3, O I line, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4725-spectra/NED-NGC4725-OI-3.png


Image 4, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4725-spectra/NED-NGC4725-HI-4.png

Observations:

Images 1 and 4)

There is no spectrum provided for each plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

The peak is not at the value of 1206. NED never identifies the spectrum providing the velocity value.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

(image3)
An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.


It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4725 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 4725 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 7 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 4725 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.8 NGC 7331 

NGC 7331 is in the constellation Leo, in sky quadrant NQ2
Pegasus NQ4.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_7331

From NED Redshifts (35):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00272, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 816 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 16.50 ± 1.19 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.001635 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from uncorrected Z and c is 816 km/s
The V result matches NED.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 12.0354 Mpc
The D result is about 73% that from NED.

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 816 km/s
D = 12.2 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (54):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-dist.png

There are 17 results for Method Cepheids

Their average = 14.90625

There are also results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra:

The tab has (17)

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-OPT-1.png

Image 2, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-OPT-2.png


Image 3, H I. from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-HI-1.png

Image 4, H I. from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-HI-2.png

Image 5, H I. from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-HI-3.png


Image 6, H I. from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-HI-4.png


Image 7, H I. from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC7331-spectra/NED-NGC7331-HI-5.png

Observations:

Image 1)

There are no prominent emission lines to select one for a red shift.

Image 2)

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and seems to be redshifted. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to ground state, and its motion away from the observer resulted in a red shift of the line.
Perhaps the astronomer made the correct conclusion when ignoring this line.

(Images 3-7)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is some number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

Image 3 might have a peak around 816, the stated velocity.

NED never explicitly identifies the spectrum used for the velocity value.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 7331 has an unjustified non-zero velocity. The correct value is the statement: there has been no attempt to measure this galaxy's proper velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 7331 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 17 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

If any values are altered to account for the non-existent CMB, then each change is invalid and anything affected by this mistake must be fixed. NED is not explicit with what changed for the CMB.

NGC 7331 has a wrong velocity.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy, when both numerator and denominator are lists of values.


8.9 NGC 300

NGC 300 is also known as Caldwell 70, and is in the constellation Sculptor, in sky quadrant SQ1.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_300

From NED Redshifts (20):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00048, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 144 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 1.68 ± 0.12 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

[Redshift -0.000304 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)

There is a difference in sign between preferred and corrected redshifts. A blue shift suggesting motion toward Earth is rare. In this book's data set, 24 galaxies have a negative velocity, or less than 4%.

Calculating V from corrected Z (which is positive) and c is 144 km/s
The V result matches NED V in sign and value.

2)

Calculating D from NED preferred V and H0 is 2.123894
 Mpc

The D result is about 26% higher than NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 144 km/s
D = 1.86 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (74):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC300-spectra/NED-NGC300-dist.png


There are 22 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 1.945

There are also results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (3):

Here are all 3 of them:

Image 1, Far-Infrared band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC300-spectra/NED-NGC300-FIR.png

Image 2, H I, from integrated region.


https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC300-spectra/NED-NGC300-HI-1.png

Image 3, H I, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC300-spectra/NED-NGC300-HI-2.png

Observations:

Image 1)

An astronomer would measure these long wavelengths in infrared only when looking for a high redshift spectral line.

Unfortunately, a fast atom in the line of sight to this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the distant galaxy.

Images 2 and 3)

They have different units for their vertical axis.

Image 2 must be the source of the negative velocity.
There is no spectrum provided for these images plotting velocities, in X, in reference to different types of values, in Y.

The only possible origin of image 3 is some number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured compared to 21 cm. The difference was used to get z where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity and wavelength intensity as shown.
It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.


None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 300 has an unjustified velocity and NED indicates it is somehow measured as a positive or negative z.
The correct value is the statement: there has been no attempt to measure this galaxy's proper velocity.

NGC 300 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.10 NGC 1365

NGC 1365 is in the constellation Fornax, in sky quadrant SQ1.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_1365

From NED Redshifts (61):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00546, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc,


V (Heliocentric) is 1636 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 22.19 ± 1.56 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.005133 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 1638 km/s
The V result difference of 2 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D with NED preferred V and H0 is
24.15929 Mpc
The D result is about 9% higher than NED

3)
From Wikipedia:
V = 1636 km/s
D = 17.2 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (66):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365-dist.png


There are 31 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 18.9533

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (24):

Here are the relevant images:

Image 1, Far-IR band, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--FIR.png

Image 2, N III line, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--NII.png


There is another NIII capture, then other metallic lines, including O I, O III, C II.
More spectra are not relevant.

Image 3, H I, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--HI-1.png

Image 4, H I, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--HI-2.png

Image 5, H I, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--HI-3.png

Image 6, H I, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--HI-4.png


Image 7, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC1365-spectra/NED-NGC1365--OPT-1.png


Observations:

Image 1)

An astronomer would measure these long wavelengths in infrared only when looking for a high redshift spectral line.

Unfortunately, a fast atom in the line of site to this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the distant galaxy.

Image 2)

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.

Images 3-6)

There is no spectrum provided for each plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is some number of emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of a velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.
No peaks in the neutral hydrogen emissions can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line, to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

Image 7)

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and it seems to be captured by this sample. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to ground state, resulting in little or no shift of the line.

This line should be ignored, as it was, because it indicates nothing of the galaxy.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 1365 has an unjustified non-zero velocity when derived from atoms.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight.
The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 1365 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 31 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 1365 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.11 NGC 3621

NGC 3621 is in the constellation Hydra, in sky quadrant SQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_3621

From NED Redshifts (18):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00244, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 730 ± 2 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 6.49 ± 0.52 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.003548 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Z and c is 732 km/s
The V result difference of 2 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED preferred V and H0 =
10.79646 Mpc
The D result is about 66% higher than NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 727 km/s
D = 6.64 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (47):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--dist.png

There are 22 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 6.59545

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (22):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--OPT-1.png

Image 2 and more, Mid-IR band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--MIR-2.png


Image 3,  O I, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--OI-3.png

There are more images of metallic ion lines, Including O III, N II, C II. More spectra are not relevant.

Image 4, H I, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--HI-4.png

Image 5, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC3621-spectra/NED-NGC3621--HI-5.png

There is also another H I spectrum.

Observations:

Image 1)

There are several emission lines from several ions. They were also captured in other images.

6563 A is the Balmer-alpha emission line, and it seems to be captured by this sample. The line suggests a slow proton captured a slow electron, emitting less energy than the Lyman-alpha line, when the atom dropped to ground state, resulting in little or no shift of the line.

This line should be ignored, as it was, because it indicates nothing of the galaxy.

Image 2)

An astronomer would measure these long wavelengths in infrared only when looking for a high redshift spectral line.

Unfortunately, a fast atom in the line of sight to this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the distant galaxy.

(image 3)

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.

NGC 3621 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 3621 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.12 NGC 5236

NGC 5236 is also known as M83, and is in the constellation Hydra, in sky quadrant SQ2.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Messier_83

From NED Redshifts (31):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00171, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc
 
V (Heliocentric) is 513 ± 2 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) =  4.44 ± 0.36 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.002645 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from Preferred Z and c is 513 km/s
The V result matches NED.

2)
Calculating D from NED preferred V and H0 =
7.566372 Mpc
The D result is about 70% more than NED
Calculating D from NED corrected Z to get a corrected V (793.5) and with H0 =  11.70354 Mpc

This is even higher than using preferred Z, so a larger difference.

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 508 km/s
D = 4.5 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ, with preferred z, or corrected z.

From NED Distances:

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-dist.png


There are 2 results for Method Cepheids (both are in the screen capture)
Their average = 4.555

There are 8 results from other methods, after those in the image above (not all fit in the screen capture).

With the 8 methods shown in the image, and 8 seen after scrolling and so all 16 methods are visible.

NED does not identify the final distance value, after considering the set of 16 values available by scrolling this page in NED.

The origin of the distance value from NED is not clear from this display page in NED.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (22):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-OPT-1.png

Image 3, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-HI-3.png

Image 4, Far-IR, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-FIR-4.png

Image 5, N III line, from Integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-NII-5.png

aImage 6, UV band, not in book.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5236-spectra/NED-NGGC5236-UV-2.png

There are more spectra of metallic ion emissions, including O I, O III, N II, O I; some have more than 1 image. More spectra are not relevant.

Observations:

Image 1)

There are several emission lines near the infrared end.

Image 2)

Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in UV band. It appears close to 1216 A, so the proton was not moving fast, at the moment of its electron capture.

This event detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Image 3)

This distribution must be the origin of the velocity.

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

Image 4)

An astronomer would measure these long wavelengths in infrared only when looking for a high redshift spectral line.

Unfortunately, a fast atom in the line of sight to this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the distant galaxy.

(image 5)

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.


NGC 5236 has an unjustified non-zero velocity when based on atoms.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.
 
NGC 5236 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.13 NGC 4038 

NGC 4038, is also known as one of the Antennae galaxy pair, and is in the constellation Corvus, in sky quadrant SQ3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antennae_Galaxies

From NED Redshifts (22):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00548, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 1642 ± 12 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 20.67 ± 1.47 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.006661 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 1644 km/s
The V result difference of 2 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is
24.24779 Mpc
The D result is about 17% higher than NED
3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 1642 km/s
D = 19.94 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (27):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4038-spectra/NGGC4038-dist.png


There are 3 results for Method Cepheids (all are in the screen capture)

Their average = 20.0

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (3):

Here are the images:

Image 1, Far-IR band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4038-spectra/NGGC4038-FIR-1.png

Image 2, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4038-spectra/NGGC4038-HI-1.png

Image 3, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4038-spectra/NGGC4038-HI-2.png

Observations:

Image 1)

An astronomer would measure these long wavelengths in infrared only when looking for a high redshift spectral line.

Unfortunately, a fast atom in the line of sight to this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the distant galaxy.

Images 2 and 3)

Image 3 not 2 is probably the origin of the velocity. NED never explicitly identifies the spectrum for a velocity value.

There is no spectrum provided for these plots of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is a several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of a velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4038 has an unjustified non-zero velocity. The correct value is the statement: there has been no attempt to measure this galaxy's proper velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 4038 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.14 NGC 5128 

NGC 5128 is also known as Centaurus A, is in the constellation Centaurus, in sky quadrant SQ3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centaurus_A

From NED Redshifts (58):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00183, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 547 ± 5 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 4.44 ± 0.39 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.002678 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 549 km/s
The V result difference of 2 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is 8.097345 Mpc
The D result is about 82% higher than NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 547 km/s
D = about 4 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ by about 11%

From NED Distances (54):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5128-spectra/NGGC5128-dist.png


There are 4 results for Method Cepheids (all are in the screen capture)

Their average = 3.27

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (23):

Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Far-IR band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5128-spectra/NGGC5128-FIR-1.png

Image 2, O III line at 52 um, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5128-spectra/NGGC5128-OII-2.png

Image 3, O I line at 63 um, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5128-spectra/NGGC5128-OI-3.png

There are more spectra with metallic ion emission lines, including O I, N II, N III, C II; with some repeated. More spectra are not relevant.

Image 4, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5128-spectra/NGGC5128-HI-4.png

Observations:

Image 1)

There is nothing of interest in this band of long wavelengths.

Images 2-3)

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.

Image 4)

There is no spectrum provided for this plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is a several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of a velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.
It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line, to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

This somewhat random distribution is apparently the origin of the redshift velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 5128 has an unjustified non-zero velocity when derived from atoms.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.
NGC 5128 should have a published statement which directly states there is a range of possible distances. The value must state the uncertainty which is demonstrated by the many different possible values coming from different attempts. A distance being derived from 7 or more values should not omit the uncertainty.

NGC 5128 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.15 NGC 5253 

NGC 5253 is in the constellation Centaurus, in sky quadrant SQ3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_5253

From NED Redshifts (25):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00136, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 407 ± 3 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 2.85 ± 0.28 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.002272 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 408 km/s
The V result difference of 1 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED preferred V and H0 is
6.017699 Mpc
The D result is more than 2 times that from NED


3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 407 km/s
D = 3.33 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ, with W higher

From NED Distances (55):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-dist.png

There are 26 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 3.9156

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (6):

Here are the images:

Image 1, UV band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-UV-1.png

Image 2, HI, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-HI-2.png

Image 3, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-HI-3.png

Image 4, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-HI-4.png

Image 5, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-HI-5.png


Image 6, Optical band, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC5253-spectra/NGGC5253-OPT-6.png


Observations:

Image 1)

Lyman-alpha emission line was detected in UV band. It appears close to 1216 A, so it was not moving fast at the moment of electron capture.

This event detection has nothing to do with a galaxy's velocity or distance.

Images 2, 6)

These metallic ion emission lines arise in the line of sight, and indicate nothing of the galaxy.

Images 3, 4, 5)

There is no spectrum provided for each plot of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is a several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

None of them seem to show 407, the claimed velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 5253 has an unjustified non-zero velocity when derived from atoms.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time.  This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 5253 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy
.
8.16 NGC 4535 

NGC 4535 is in the constellation Virgo, in sky quadrant SQ3.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_4535

From NED Redshifts (30):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00655, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692

V (Heliocentric) is 1964 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc ± km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 27.19 ± 1.91 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc, ? matter = 0.308, ? vacuum = 0.692]

[Redshift 0.007668 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 1965 km/s
The V result difference of 1 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED using preferred V and H0 is
28.9823 Mpc
The D result is about 7% higher than D from NED.

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 1962 km/s
D = 16.6 Mpc

Wikipedia V is near NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (54):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-dist.png


There are 19 results for Method Cepheids (not all fit in the screen capture).

Their average = 16.28

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.

Wikipedia D does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (5):

Here are the 5 images:

Image 1, H I line, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-HI-1.png

Image 2, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-OPT-2.png

Image 3, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-OPT-3.png

Image 4, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-OPT-4.png

Image 5, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4535-spectra/NGGC4535-HI-5.png

Observations:

Images 1 and 5)

There is no spectrum provided for these plots of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z. Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.


It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

There is a peak near 1962, which is the stated velocity.

However, both images show zero velocity as the strongest line. A case could be made for zero velocity for this galaxy.

When one line shows apparent motion while another line shows none, then this is definitely not a consistent measurement.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4535 has an unjustified non-zero velocity.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.
 NGC 4535 has a wrong velocity, when based on atoms in the line of sight.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.

8.17 NGC 4536 

NGC 4536 is in the constellation Virgo, in sky quadrant SQ3

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NGC_4536

From NED Redshifts (33):

Preferred Redshift: Z = 0.00603, H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc

V (Heliocentric) is 1808 ± 1 km/s

Hubble Flow Distance and Distance Modulus (where H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc)

D (Local Group) = 24.51 ± 1.72 Mpc

Cosmology-Corrected Quantities [H0 = 67.8 km/sec/Mpc]

[Redshift 0.007174 as corrected to the Reference Frame defined by the 3K CMB]

Observations:

1)
Calculating V from preferred Z and c is 1809 km/s
The V result difference of 1 km/s is trivial.

2)
Calculating D from NED V and H0 is
26.68142 Mpc
The D result is about 9% higher than NED

3)
 From Wikipedia:
V = 1808 km/s
D = 14.9 Mpc

Wikipedia V matches NED V
But D values differ

From NED Distances (84):

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-dist.png


There are 28 results for Method Cepheids

Their average = 15.613158

There are more results from other methods (not all fit in the screen capture).

The D provided by NED is not just from this set.
 
Wikipedia does not match NED.

From NED Spectra (27):
Here are the relevant ones:

Image 1, Mid-IR Band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-MIR-1.png

Image 2, Optical band, from Nucleus region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-OPT-2.png

Image 3, O I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-OI-3.png

Images 4, 5, 17 are also O I.

Images 6-8 are, O III, from integrated region.

Images 9 – 14 are N II, C II, with some repeating.

Image 15, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-HI-15.png

Image 16, H I, from integrated region.

https://www.cosmologyview.com/NEDcap/NGC4536-spectra/NGGC4536-HI-16.png

Observations:

Image 1)

This band of long wavelengths offers nothing important.

Image 2 indicates several absorption and emission lines. They arise from atoms in the line of sight and indicate nothing of the galaxy.

(image 3 and more)

An astronomer would measure wavelengths of metallic ions only when looking for a shift of a metallic ion spectral line.


LINER galaxies are known to have spectral lines of metallic ions in the line of sight to their nucleus.

Unfortunately, a metallic ion in the line of sight to the core of  this galaxy cannot indicate the correct motion of the entire distant galaxy.


Images 15, 16)

There is no spectrum provided for these plots of velocities. The only possible origin of this plot is several emission lines around 21 cm. Each line had its wavelength measured from 21 cm. The difference was compared to 21 cm where diff / 21 cm = z.
Next, each z was multiplied by c, resulting in a series of velocity with wavelength intensity as shown.

Image 16 might be the origin of the claimed velocity.

It is impossible for this set of atoms in the line of sight, having differences in their 21 cm emission line to indicate the galaxy's proper velocity.

None of these peaks can be the galaxy's velocity in any direction. Using them is a mistake.

It is impossible to measure any 3-dimensional proper velocity when using only the line of sight.

NGC 4536 has an unjustified non-zero velocity when derived from atoms.

This exercise requires measuring motion in all directions including transverse. It is a mistake of negligence when measuring only in the line of sight. The velocity measurement requires many positions recorded over a span of time. This is how we measure the motion of comets and asteroids. Galaxies are more distant and require more time because the angular distance covered in time decreases as the distance increases, for the same velocity.

NGC 4536 has a wrong velocity when derived from atoms.

It is impossible to calculate the V/D ratio, or Hubble's constant, for this galaxy.


8.18 Cepheid Summary

Only 17 galaxies beyond our Local Group having Cepheids in them.


Every galaxy has its velocity from measuring spectral lines from atoms in the line of sight.

Each velocity measured this way is wrong and must be ignored.

A distance based on the wrong velocity is also wrong and must be ignored.

Noting all their redshifts are from emission lines finds no acceptable velocity when calculating the ratio of the correct galaxy's velocity to its distance.
None of these galaxies having Cepheids can provide a valid result for a possible value for Hubble's constant.

Cosmology cannot have any important constant dependent on a galaxy's velocity.  No galaxy has a correctly measured velocity.

Go to Table of Contents, to read a specific section.


;ast update: 01/14/2022