My views on Cosmology and Physics
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Book by David Michalets
This is section 4 of 18.
The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.
The Doppler Effect is a critical observation in cosmology.
Here is one definition:
Doppler effect, the apparent difference between the frequency at which sound or light waves leave a source and that at which they reach an observer, caused by relative motion of the observer and the wave source. This phenomenon is used in astronomical measurements. [Reference:
Light and sound are similar when the velocity of the source cannot affect the velocity of the light or sound being propagated. The velocities of light and sound are always defined by the medium. A moving source affects only the frequency of the wave or oscillation, not the velocity of propagation.
The Doppler Effect with light is observed when the entire spectrum of the light source has shifted in proportion to the light source's velocity in that direction.
The velocity of light cannot be affected by the light source velocity. However, the source in motion affects the distribution around the sphere of the radiated energy, never its velocity.
The timing of the Doppler Effect is crucial when one observes a spectrum shift in radiation from distant objects.
The Doppler Effect occurs only at the moment of radiation emission, when the motion of the object at that instant affects the spectrum.
There are 2 sources of electromagnetic radiation affected by the Doppler Effect: stars and atoms.
Stars emit thermal radiation, where the distribution of energy across its range of wavelengths is related to the temperature of the heat source. Stars emit their energy in the range of thermal from ultraviolet to infrared, so an eye is sensitive to part of that range in what is called visible light.
An ion emits a characteristic wavelength, when capturing an electron and the atom becomes neutral. If the ion is in motion, its kinetic energy participates in the energy transfer, observed as a shift in the wavelength proportional to the ion's velocity relative to the velocity of light.
Similarly, an atom or ion can absorb a characteristic wavelength, when transferring energy to its electrons, or to its internal energy state. If the atom or ion is in motion, its kinetic energy participates in the energy transfer, observed as a shift in the absorption line's wavelength proportional to the atom's velocity relative to the velocity of light.
The star's thermal radiation or an atom's emission line initiates the propagation of the synchronized electric and magnetic fields. This propagation is an expanding sphere from the source. This sphere of energy continues until it is absorbed by an object in its path.
Stars emit a broad spectrum of thermal radiation. The energy distribution among the wavelengths is driven by the object's temperature, which a measurement of the internal molecular vibrations. The nuclei are electrical charges in motion, though within a very small range.
Atoms emit or absorb a characteristic wavelength based on the electron configuration.
The energy change in the atom is transferred to the corresponding wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Some atoms emit more than one wavelength when dropping to their ground state.
These wavelengths can be observed and measured in a spectrum and are called emission lines.
The instant of radiation emission, the motion of the source affects the wavelength distribution around that sphere. Wavelengths in the direction of the source are changed by an amount proportional to the source's velocity relative to the velocity of light. The light source is generating a continuum of energy as a sphere. Wavelengths in one side of the sphere will be reduced, or toward the blue end, in the direction of the source. Wavelengths in the other side of the sphere will be increased, or toward the red end, in the direction opposite of the source. There is perfect symmetry with the change in wavelength on one side exactly matched by the change on the opposite side. The sphere is a continuum of energy, being carried in wavelengths. There is no quantized behavior present.
The motion of the light source does not change the amount of energy being radiated, but only its distribution around the sphere of its propagation. Energy is always conserved.
The Doppler Effect also occurs only at the moment of radiation absorption by an atom, when the motion of the atom at that instant also affects the spectrum. When energy is absorbed by an atom than that energy is missing from the radiation, observed by a line missing from the continuum. The energy is carried in wavelengths so those wavelengths carrying the energy which was transferred to the object are missing in the spectrum from the light source. These missing wavelengths are called absorption lines.
Absorption lines arise from atoms in the line of sight, between the light source which emits the intact energy or spectrum.
The absorption line behavior is affected by the velocity of the atom. A moving atom carries kinetic energy, and that energy participates in the transfer of energy from the radiation to the atom. As with an emission line, the velocity of the atom relative to the velocity of light determines the amount of energy involved in the exchange.
An atom is essentially a tiny sphere. An atom in the path of electromagnetic radiation can absorb energy from that continuum of energy. The atom's motion relative to the radiation is important. The motion at that point in the sphere will have a proportion relative to the velocity of light and relative to the direction of the incoming light.
When the atom is moving toward the light source the kinetic energy of the atom is a participant and it reduces the energy the atom requires for a state change and absorbs from the radiation. A decrease in energy is a higher wavelength.
Energy is always conserved during this exchange.
When the atom is moving away from the light source the kinetic energy of the atom is a participant and it increases the energy the atom requires and absorbs from the radiation. This increase in energy is a lower wavelength.
The energy being absorbed is noted as an absorption line wavelength.
4.1 Doppler Calculations
This is the simple calculation of z.
The velocity, called v here, of the source is compared to the velocity of light by dividing that value by the velocity of light, called the constant c.
The value of v has a sign. Doppler Effect is in the observer's line of sight. When the object is moving away from the observer, v is + or positive, and when moving toward the observer, v is – or negative.
The result is called z by convention.
The simple equation is z=v/c, making sure the units are the same (usually km/s).
The shift in a spectrum due to the motion of the light source is a simple equation,
where EWL is the emission wavelength,
NWL is the new wavelength, so:
NWL = EWL + ( EWL multiplied by z)
where the z is the factor for the change in the new wavelength from that originally emitted; z is positive for a red shift or negative for a blue shift.
There is no quantized behavior in any of the equation's factors or in the result.
4.2 Galaxy Red Shift
The Local Group has 2 galaxies, M31 and M33, with blue shifts. The spectrum of galaxies beyond our Local Group exhibit a unique behavior. In 1936, Edwin Hubble noticed this and put our Local Group on an island separate from the Hubble Flow.
These galaxies have a lyman-alpha emission line which shifts toward the red, and in the limited data set of galaxies measured before 1926 this shift increases as the galaxy's distance increases from the observer, who is always on or near the Earth.
As the atoms are neutral, they will be pulled by gravity toward the nearest galaxy having the most mass. Depending on their initial distance the sustained acceleration can reach a higher velocity.
Motion toward another galaxy is away from Earth, so the atom has a redshift.
Improving imaging technology enables a spectrum to be captured from galaxies which had been too dim by their distance. The dim, distant galaxies often exhibited a lyman-alpha emission line.
All share the same red shifted Lyman-alpha emission line.
These galaxies have this line with a red shift indicating the atom is moving at many multiples of the speed of light, like 7x. A proton when capturing an electron emits this characteristic wavelength. The wavelength is shifted by the proton's velocity at the instant of that capture. This redshift comes from the new hydrogen atom in the line of sight and indicates nothing about the distant galaxy's actual motion.
Also, a galaxy's Lyman-alpha redshift of z > 1 indicates a proton's velocity is exceeding that of light. Einstein developed the theory of relativity assuming mass cannot travel faster than c. His unjustified assumption was shown to be a mistake several galaxies. Relativity has too many mistakes.
By mistake, this hydrogen emission line redshift was considered the result of a velocity of another object causing a Doppler effect. This is only a line of sight behavior, and any atom's emission line indicates nothing about the distant galaxy's actual velocity. This mistake caused many others, including the universe expansion, dark energy, and the Big Bang.
Essentially, the only limit on a galaxy redshift is the technology to measure the most distant ones. Treating this z as a velocity of the galaxy is ridiculous.
Scientists eventually tried to explain how galaxies could possibly have a velocity exceeding 8x the velocity of light by an expanding fabric of space.
4.3 Quasar Red Shift
A quasar is a distant object which looks like a star, but it has a strong source of synchrotron radiation, extending from radio to X-ray. Many quasars were found by their radio emissions. All quasars share redshifted emission lines from a variety of non-hydrogen elements where the mix can vary by quasar.
These quasars can also have this lyman-alpha line with a red shift indicating the atom is moving at many multiples of the speed of light, like 7x. A proton when capturing an electron emits this characteristic wavelength. The wavelength is shifted by the proton's velocity at the instant of that capture. This red shift comes from the atom in the line of sight, and indicates nothing about the distant quasar's actual motion. This mistake compounds the galaxy red shift mistake, so both objects have a different mechanism. This makes the false dark energy difficult to explain both false velocities. Therefore, a quasar usually has 2 measurable redshifts. 1st from the metallic ion emission lines. 2nd from the Lyman-alpha emission line. The 1st always has a lower z (< 1) than the 2nd, at z > 1.
Also, a quasar's hydrogen red shift of z > 1 indicates a proton's velocity is exceeding that of light. Einstein developed the theory of relativity assuming mass cannot travel faster than c. His unjustified assumption was shown to be a mistake by many quasars. Relativity has too many mistakes.
Halton Arp in his work with quasars failed to recognize a quasar has 2 red shifts. His book Seeing Red, even has 2 spectrograms illustrating that dual behavior, but Arp always used 1 of the 2 z values, the lower, in his descriptions. This was not deception. In some interviews, he indicates someone else measured the redshift. Also, as z increases, the emission line shifts further toward infrared where it might not be seen. If the spectrogram cuts off longer wavelengths like in infrared, the high redshifted line might be lost as a result.
Clearly, Arp was unaware of the mechanisms being measured for the values of galaxy and quasar, and it appears others gave him the redshift value rather personally calculating it. He uncatalogued his observations without having to do the calculations. If Arp was aware of 2 red shifts his book would have reached different conclusions. Arp is noted for his extensive observations including his well-known compilation of peculiar galaxies.
Many others do not understand the redshift mechanisms. I cannot know for sure, but perhaps I was the first to declare quasars have 2 redshifts, one from Lyman-alpha and a second from the metallic ions. Arp's quasars in the first figure of his book are explained in section Quasars.
For those interested in more details about quasars, they are in my earlier books like Cosmology Connections. This book is about measuring velocities. The minimum description should be enough for here.
An annotated quasar spectrum, from Caltech, is included in the section Quasars.
4.4 Redshift summary
The term "redshift" is used so loosely, most think of it as just a simple number having a consistent meaning, like a temperature.
A redshift is not that simple and anyone using the term so loosely is showing they consider it as just a simple number.
It is crucial to recognize there are at least 5 different redshifts. Each is a measurement of a distinct behavior.
Galaxies are totally different entities than quasars. A galaxy has billions of stars while a quasar is a quasi-stellar object having no stars.
A quasar's red shift can come from only emission lines from ions capturing electrons. None of these emission lines indicate anything about the quasar.
Similarly, a galaxy's measured red or blue shift can only be in absorption or emission lines from atoms in the line of sight. Each shift is measured as a change, and the result of a ratio is a dimensionless value called z. It is a mistake to call this measurement using atoms as a velocity of the object behind them.
As noted earlier, a metallic element is one which is not hydrogen or helium.
The 5 distinct red shifts are:
1) Galaxy – hydrogen absorption (several)
2) Galaxy – hydrogen emission lines (several)
3) Galaxy – metal
4) Quasar – hydrogen emission lines (several)
5) Quasar – metal
Shift (1): There are several series of hydrogen absorption lines. The single electron orbiting the single proton can take 1 of many orbits, or energy states. The first 2 sets have been defined as the Lyman and Balmer series; there are more series. The Lyman-alpha absorption line is at 1216 Angstroms. Any absorption lines must be from atoms in the line of sight and are not from the galaxy. This book will ignore other hydrogen lines, like from the Balmer series.
The hydrogen absorption lines are never observed in the spectrum of a galaxy, only the emission lines from those series.
Shift (2): There are at least 2 hydrogen emission lines, the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 Angstroms, and the neutral hydrogen line at 21 cm. Both lines must be from atoms in the line of sight and are not from the galaxy. This book will ignore other series of hydrogen lines, like Balmer.
Shift (3): A notable example of a metallic line is the blue shift in M31, Andromeda galaxy. The calcium ion absorption line is driven by calcium ions near the galactic corona. Calcium is a metal. The metallic emission line originates in the ion but not in the primary light source, the galaxy. Software analysis of M31 spectrum can find the lyman-alpha emission line, so M31 does capture a proton. The pair of calcium absorption lines are so obvious, they are used. The 2 spectrograms of M31 are shown in section Galaxies, where M31 and M33 are the first 2 examples.
Shift (4): The quasar high red shift comes from the hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission line. It is possible the highest redshift comes from the Balmer-alpha emission line when the captured electron has less velocity than for a capture emitting the Lyman-alpha line. The Balmer series lines appear less often in quasars than the Lyman series.
Shift (5): The quasar low red shift comes from the metallic ion emission lines.
Shift (1): This line can never be a galaxy velocity.
Shift (2): There are galaxies with either a red or blue shift of the metallic ion absorption lines. M31 has a calcium line blue shifted. This can never be a galaxy velocity, nor can it be related to a galaxy distance. Only a Cepheid provides a distance metric.
LINER galaxies, which include Seyferts, exhibit several metallic elements when taking the spectrum of their AGN. None of these metallic lines in a LINER galaxy spectrum are related to the galaxy's motion.
Shift (4): The hydrogen Lyman-alpha emission line is found in a "typical" quasar. This can never be a quasar velocity, nor can it be related to a quasar distance.
Shift (5): These metallic lines are found in the quasars used by Halton Arp, in his book Seeing Red. This red shift can never be a quasar velocity, nor can it be related to a quasar distance, nor can it be related to the age of matter. These ions just slow down in apparent incremental changes in their velocity.
The z value for (4) has exceeded 7, while the z value for (5) is < 1.
It is crucial to note that none of the 5 types of a red shift is an indicator of the object's real velocity.
None of the redshifts have a useful application.
All 4 types are defined to prevent a wrong application, like a velocity of another object.
No redshift is a velocity, except with an atom or star. Galaxies and quasars are neither.
When one accepts that simple fact about the false velocities, then there is no "Hubble Flow." That was the term Edwin Hubble used initially for the redshift trend.
Dark energy arose from the wrong assumption that the false expansion is consistent.
There is no expansion, no dark energy, and no big bang.
4.5 Atoms and Stars
Atoms and stars are not in the list with galaxies and quasars.
An atom generating an emission line is a light source so its motion results in a true Doppler effect.
Similarly, an atom absorbing its characteristic wavelength has its kinetic energy participate in the energy transfer so its motion results in a true Doppler effect for its absorption line.
A star's photosphere is a light source, so the star's motion results in a true Doppler effect on its light. A Star and its planets rotate around the system's center of gravity. This shift of the star's entire spectrum can be measured. Most exoplanets are found by their blocking some of the light from their star, when their orbit takes them in the line of sight.
Some exoplanets are found using what is called the wobble method. The cycle of a star's wobble with its planets results in a cycle of red and blue shifts. An analysis of this cycle, using Kepler's laws of planetary motion, enables finding the mass and orbits of the respective exoplanets.
Astronomers made a mistake when interpreting the alternating spectrum of variable stars, seeing it as a Doppler effect (kappa mechanism), not as a temperature change. A star's light is thermal radiation, so its wavelength distribution is driven by its photosphere temperature. That is how the temperature of every star is measured.
Variable stars are noted for their measured luminosity cycle having a peak followed by several days before the peak repeats.
Pierre-Marie Robitaille's LMH model of the Sun or stars, offers a better explanation for all observed stellar behaviors than cosmology offers. His model was mentioned in the section Stars.
4.6 Cosmological Red Shift
Cosmological redshift is the result of failing to understand the mechanism driving a measured red shift.
One mistake with absorption and emission lines is treating them as a velocity. These lines are behaviors only in the line of sight and are not within the distant object
Cosmological red shift simply ignores the mechanisms driving a change in an object's spectrum.
This is one explanation:
Laboratory experiments here on Earth have determined that each element in the periodic table emits photons only at certain wavelengths (determined by the excitation state of the atoms). These photons are manifest as either emission or absorption lines in the spectrum of an astronomical object, and by measuring the position of these spectral lines, we can determine which elements are present in the object itself or along the line of sight. However, when astronomers perform this analysis, they note that for most astronomical objects, the observed spectral lines are all shifted to longer (redder) wavelengths. This is known as 'cosmological redshift' (or more commonly just 'redshift'). [Reference:
There is a very big mistake in this description.
The phrase "the observed spectral lines are all shifted to longer wavelengths" is wrong.
With most galaxies, there is only 1 emission line being affected. It is either the neutral hydrogen line or the Lyman-alpha line. "All lines" is definitely wrong when every observation finds only one.
In a proposed cosmological redshift, all wavelengths from the source are lengthened as the light travels through (supposedly expanding) space. Cosmological redshift results from the expansion of space itself and not from the motion of an individual body.
The galaxy spectrum at its source has no absorption or emission lines. All lines originate in the line of sight. They should never be used for the galaxy's velocity. This was explained in section Star vs Galaxy.
This cosmological redshift is a big mistake by ignoring how red shifts are measured.
Cosmological redshift violates the conservation of energy.
The reason is with the Doppler Effect at the moment of emission or absorption, light does not gain or lose energy through the event. The Doppler Effect is either a transfer of energy or a change in its distribution within the sphere radiating from the source.
A blue shift or red shift at any other time is a change in the radiation energy with no identified partner for a transfer. This is a violation of conservation of energy. A red shift is a loss of energy. A blue shift is a gain of energy.
A red shift of all wavelengths is a loss of energy. This cannot happen. This cosmological redshift is a mistake of confusion, when trying to solve the redshift mistake.
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;ast update: 01/14/2022