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My views on Cosmology and Physics

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Books by David Michalets

Distant Spectral Shifts

17 Final Conclusion

This is section 17 of 18.

The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.

The essential problem for astronomers is finding an acceptable velocity for an acceptable distance to calculate an acceptable value of Hubble's Constant.

Cosmology has several serious problems when measuring the velocity of distant galaxies and quasars.
Their velocities are measured like stars; this is mistake.
Every galaxy and quasar velocity value is wrong.
Only distances based on a standard candle like a variable star could remain valid.
Any distance based on a velocity is wrong.
The only way to measure a galaxy's velocity or a quasar's velocity in 3-dimensions, like left/right, up/down, forward / away (or in / out) is by taking many position measurements over a long time to divide distance by time.
All current galaxy and quasar velocities are invalid.
Only distances based on luminosity, when not using a redshift velocity, are valid. Using Cepheids is one example.
Therefore, nearly every galaxy and quasar distance must be withdrawn, because only a few have a justifiable distance, independent of a (always wrong) velocity.
Astronomers must explain that we have never measured any galaxy's true motion. This is a direct contradiction to the decades of many claiming with certainty:
a) that the universe started with a big bang and space itself is somehow expanding faster than the speed of light,
b) that we know the exact age of the universe with fine precision.
Unfortunately, the scope of recovering from this mistake of measurement is close to starting over with most of what is beyond our Milky Way. This is almost like the mis-perception before 1924, when everything beyond our solar system was believed to be part of our Milky Way. Now, there is no correctly measured motion of anything beyond our Milky Way.
Many other mistakes like big bang, black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and Hubble's Law & constant, expansion must depart, as well. All are mistakes driven by accepting incorrect data or claims having no evidence.

Astronomers will require generations of observations to measure changes in position of objects millions of light years away.

The closest spiral galaxy isM31 which was measured using Cepheids at over 2.5 million light years. I expect hundreds, if not thousands, of years are required to measure its 3-dimensional velocity by using objects in its distant background. Objects beyond our Local Group will require even more time to measure a change in position over time.

We must accept that the universe beyond our Local Group is static, when having no measurable motion.

As my other books noted, the recovery of cosmology should also include the removal of relativity from cosmology and physics.
A new cosmology must be based on classical physics, as defined by Newton and Maxwell, and improved by Alfven.

My earlier book Redefining Gravity explains why Newton's real force of gravity must replace space-time from Einstein's relativity. Gravity must be redefined to be Newton's force, not space-time. My earlier book Cosmology Connections noted the many instances of electrical connections, like an aurora, which must be part of cosmology. [Reference: my books]

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;ast update: 01/14/2022