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Books by David Michalets

Distant Spectral Shifts

14 Hubble's Constant

This is section 14 of 18.

The web page series for Distant Spectral Shifts is based on my book Cosmology Crisis Cleared.

Hubble's constant is the most important constant in cosmology.

14.1 Context of the constant

This is a constant ratio in uniform geocentric universe

Hubble's constant by its 2 factors, velocity and distance, implicitly defines a geocentric universe having uniform behaviors of all its galaxies, where a velocity relative to Earth cannot vary by galaxy and where a distance from Earth cannot vary by galaxy.

14.2 Calculating the ratio

 The method of using a Cepheid for calculating a value for Hubble's Constant was described in section Hubble's Law.

Cosmologists are trying other methods. In 2017, Astronomy magazine posted this article: [R260]

HOLiCOW! Astronomers measuring the expansion of the universe confirm that we still don't understand everything

Rather than copying or paraphrasing, several of the organized attempts at measuring Hubble's Constant are described by their advocates in the article.

The project trying to use the CMB will fail because the CMB does not exist. Dr Robitaille explained these instruments are detecting the molecular vibrations of water in Earth's oceans, not the CMB. The map of the CMB looks like noise because it is just a map of noise from Earth's oceans.

The galaxy names and their data in NED are required to see their spectra for independent analysis of the studies.

There are scenarios where an agreement on a value is impossible.
a) Cosmologists develop accurate distance metrics based on luminosity,
b) The mix of galaxies in the study are using varying atoms, like neutral hydrogen or absorption lines or emission lines. These lines determine a velocity. These lines cannot affect luminosity. The atoms will probably have inconsistent velocities.
c)
d) Some type of luminosity metric like a Cepheid will determine a distance. Luminosity cannot affect the atoms in the line of sight. One exception is where UV from an energetic galaxy can ionize the neutral atoms.
The universe really cannot be driven by us on Earth, where a galaxy's distance from Earth is related by a simple ratio to the galaxy's velocity relative to Earth.

Around the celestial sphere, there could be several galaxies at about the same distance from Earth. Depending on the individual galaxy, the atoms in the line of sight appearing in its spectrum could vary. The simplest scenario is many galaxies can share the neutral hydrogen line where each galaxy attracts by gravity these atoms. If at that distance around the celestial sphere, a LINER galaxy is included then its metallic emission lines will have a galaxy dependent velocity. The V/D ratio will be inconsistent.  Hubble's constant assumes all galaxies have the same redshift mechanism. This is wrong, making an agreement on Hubble's constant impossible.



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;ast update: 01/06/2022